ZnSO4 Structure & Characteristics (15 Important Facts)

ZnSO4 is an inorganic salt also called zinc sulphate. Its molar mass is 161.47 g/mol. Let us describe some more facts about the ZnSO4 structure.

Generally, ZnSO4 occurs in heptahydrate form i.e., ZnSO4.7H2O. A colorless solid called white vitriol is formed by dissolving zinc, zinc oxide or zinc hydroxide in dilute H2SO4. It is an odorless white crystalline anhydrous solid.

ZnSO4 is an ionic compound formed by Zn2+ and SO42- ions in 1:1 stichometry. It shows a tetrahedral arrangement of Zn2+ and SO42- ions. Let us determine the other facts like hybridization, lone pair, and valence electrons of ZnSO4.

How to draw ZnSO4 structure?

ZnSO4 is an ionic inorganic compound. which is made up of Zn2+ cation and SO42- anion. This molecule forms an ionic bond between the cation and anion.

ZnSO4 molecule contains positively charge cation i.e., Zn2+ and negatively charge anion i.e., SO42-. The cations +2 charge and anions -2 charge cancel with each other hence total charge on ZnSO4 should be zero.

An ionic bond is formed between Zn2+ and SO42- ions. In SO42- anion central atom is sulphur surrounded by 4 oxygen atom and zinc metal has +2 charge on it.

Structure of ZnSO4

ZnSO4 structure shape

The structural shape of any molecule depends upon the arrangement of all the atoms present in the molecule. Let us describe the shape of ZnSO4.

The structural shape of ZnSO4 is tetrahedral. The central sulphur atom is surrounded by 4 oxygen atoms which are tetrahedrally placed around the sulphur atom. The tetrahedral shape of ZnSO4 is due to the tetrahedral shape of SO42- ions.

The shape of the molecule is determined by the VSEPR theory. According to this theory, the molecule has AX4 type and there are no lone pairs on the central atom then it shows a tetrahedral shape.

ZnSO4 structure angle

The structural angle is made by the central atom and its surrounding bonded atoms. Which shows the proper orientation of the molecule. Let us calculate the angle in ZnSO4.

The ZnSO4 structure has a 109.5-degree bond angle. Due to the tetrahedral shape and AX4 type of ZnSO4. The central sulphur atom is bonded with 4 oxygen atom and form a bond angle O-S-O is 109.5 degree.

ZnSO4 lone pairs

The lone pair of electrons are outermost orbital electrons which do not form a bond between the atoms present in the molecule. Let us see the lone pairs in ZnSO4.

ZnSO4 has 12 lone pairs of electrons. Zn has no lone pair of electrons because it loses 2 electrons hence it has Zn2+ ion. The SO42- ions gain 2 electrons from zinc metal it has 32 electrons out of them 8 electrons form bond pairs between O and S atom.

ZnSO4 has 4 O-S bonds which are formed by 8 valence electrons. The remaining 24 electrons form lone pairs on 4 oxygen atoms of SO4 ion. Thus, it has 3 lone pairs on each O atom. Hence in ZnSO4 12 lone pairs are present on SO4 ion only.

ZnSO4 valence electrons

Valence electrons are present in the outermost orbital of the atom which can accept or donate electrons. Let us calculate the valence electrons in ZnSO4

ZnSO4 has a total of 32 valence electrons. Zn atom is placed in the 12th group of the periodic table and has 2 valence electrons. while S and O are placed in the 16th group of the periodic table hence both of them have 6 valence electrons.

  • The total valence electrons of ZnSO4 are as follows.
  • Valence electrons of Zn in ZnSO4 = 2
  • Valence electrons of S in ZnSO4 = 6
  • Valence electrons of 4 O in ZnSO4 = 6×4 = 24
  • Total valence electrons of ZnSO4 = 2+6+24 = 32

ZnSO4 structure hybridization

Hybridization is a process of mixing atomic orbitals to form a new hybrid orbital. Let us describe the hybridization of ZnSO4.

ZnSO4 structure shows sp3 hybridization of the central sulphur atom. The hybridization is decided on the basis of the steric number. The steric no. of S = No. of bonds on S atom – lone pair on S atom = 4-0 =4.

According to VSEPR theory the 4 steric no. shows sp3 hybridization with tetrahedral geometry. In ZnSO4 the one s orbital overlaps with the 3p orbital to form the sp3 hybrid orbital.

Properties of ZnSO4

The properties of ZnSO4 are as follows

Molecular Weight161.47 g/mol
Density3.8 g / cu cm
Melting Point680o (Decomposes)
Boiling Point740o (Decomposes)
Properties of ZnSO4

ZnSO4 solubility

Solubility of any compound depends upon the ability of solute to dissolve in solvent and dissociates into ion. Let us see the solubility of ZnSO4.

ZnSO4 is dissolve in water. when it dissolves in water it dissociates into Zn2+ and SO42- ions.  The hydration energy of ZnSO4 is very high. Also, the Zn2+ ion and SO42- ion are loosely bound. Hence when they dissolve in water dissociates completely.

ZnSO4 is also soluble in following solvent.

  • Alcohol
  • Acid HNO3

Is ZnSO4 solid or liquid?  

In solid molecule atoms are closely packed with each other. While in liquid atoms are loosely bound. Let us see ZnSO4 is solid or liquid.   

ZnSO4 is solid molecule. In which Zn, S and O atoms are closely pack with each other. Their kinetic energy is also low.

Is ZnSO4 polar or nonpolar?

Polarity depends upon the charge distribution and electronegativity difference between the atoms in the molecule. Let us discuss whether ZnSO4 is polar or non-polar.

ZnSO4 is polar in nature. It is an ionic molecule which contain nonpolar SO42- anion. This SO42- anion attached with Zn2+ cation which make ZnSO4 polar in nature. Also, the sulphur is more electronegative than zinc. Electronegative difference between them is 0.93. by Pauling scale this value comes under polar nature.

Both the SO42- anion and Zn2+ cation has an unequal distribution of electrons. Therefore, the dipole moment creates between them due to partial positive and partial negative charge.

Is ZnSO4 acid or base or salt?

Acids are the species which can donate proton and bases are the proton acceptor. Let us see ZnSO4 is acid, base or salt.

ZnSO4 is the salt. It is form by the reaction of Zn2+ metal and SO42- ion also it is a reaction of Zinc hydroxide and sulphuric acid to form ZnSO4 salt. Zn and SO4 ion have +2 and -2 charge on itself respectively. Both the opposite charges are cancelled with each other and form ZnSO4 molecule.

Zn (OH)2 + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + 2H2O

Is ZnSO4 electrolyte?

Electrolytes are the compound when dissolve in water it gets dissociates into cation and anion and these ions carry electricity. Let us find out ZnSO4 is electrolyte or not.

ZnSO4 act as an electrolyte. When they dissolve in water or solvent it gets dissociates into Zn2+ and SO42- ion these ions carry electricity hence they are act like an electrolyte. ZnSO4 is not easily dissociates into water.

It has more lattice energy hence it requires more heat energy to dissolve in water and then converted into Zn2+ and SO42- ions which carry electricity.

Is ZnSO4 ionic or covalent?

Ionic compound is formed by the electrostatic force of attraction, while covalent compound is form by the strong sigma bond of attraction. Let us see ZnSO4 is ionic or covalent.

ZnSO4 is an ionic compound. This compound is form by the Zn2+ cation and SO42- anion by the strong electrostatic force of attraction and form strong ionic bond between them. Hence ZnSO4 shows ionic character and is not covalent.

Is ZnSO4 inorganic compound?

Inorganic compound form by the two or more chemical combine in a definite proportion. Let us see ZnSO4 is organic or inorganic.

ZnSO4 is an inorganic compound. which is form by zinc and sulphate ion combine in definite proportion. In this compound carbon and hydrogen bond is not present hence not form C-H bond which always form in an organic compound.


ZnSO4 structure has 32 valence electrons and 12 lone pairs. It has a tetrahedral structure with sp3 hybridization, and the bond angle is 109.5 o. It is a polar ionic salt. And polar inorganic water-soluble compound.

Read more about following Structure & Characteristics

Peptide Bond
Hyaluronic Acid
Disulfide Bond
Alanine Amino Acid
Glycolic Acid
Glutamic Acid
Hexanoic Acid
Scroll to Top