Vane Pump Working, Parts, Types and Applications: Detailed Facts

The vane pump working in automobile sectors, air conditioning system and power steering for the vehicles. The vane pump working is not suitable for high viscous liquid substance, it is suitable for moderate viscous liquid.

Vane positive displacement pump is a part of positive displacement pump. These vane pumps in various situation of the pressure deliver a fixed amount of flow rate. This vane positive displacement pump is also known as self priming pump. Inside this pump the liquid is pressurized under the impact of the vane.

This vane pump is not applicable for the liquid which is in high viscous. By the help of this pressure of the liquid is changes from high to low. For moderate and low viscous liquid this type of pump is absolutely appropriate. The liquids are such as liquid petroleum gas, ammonia, water, solvents, petrol and many more.

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Vane pump working
Vane pump working
Image Credit – Wikimedia Commons

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It classified as the sections of suction or vacuum pump. It is very similar to scroll compressor. The vane pump is contained some equipment such as impeller, casing, runner, vane. The multiple vanes are rotate when the rotor takes its motion. In the vanes impellers are placed.

The updated versions of the vane positive placement pump have a contact surface in the contact line between the rotor and stator.

The vane pumps are uses in a large amount in the field of automobiles, air conditioning system, steering of vehicles, fuel transport, loading of fuel in terminals.

In the vane displacement pump the vane is present and by taking of the pump liquid substance is lifted to the desired area of the fields. Inside the rotor of the pump one or more than one vane are installed and it moves under the cavity. The pressure relief valve is also placed in the pump thus it could unwanted pressure is produce inside the rotor that it could not able to failure the pump.

Vane pump parts:

In the vane positive displacement pumps a fluid substance is flow from one place to another place in low pressure to high pressure. The length can be varied for keeping contact pump’s wall as well as vane rotors.

The parts of the vane positive displacement pump and their related facts are given below,

Vane pump parts
Parts of vane pump


The shaft of the pump is placed in the rotor. When the rotor is moves under taking the power from the prime mover the shaft also starts to move in a rotation motion. The shaft is connected in the motor of the pump with the help of prime mover.


Casing is equipment which is works as the protection of the system. In vane positive displacement pump the casing is use to protect the pump. All parts of the pump are protected under the casing.

Casing is classified in two sections and they are,

  • Inlet port
  • Outlet port

Inlet port:

Fluid is entering when pressure of the liquid is compressed and sucks the liquid by the inlet port.

Outlet port:

Fluid is discharge when pressure of the liquid is released and drains the liquid by the outlet port of the vane positive displacement pump.


Slots are carried by the rotor. The slots are placed in that manner where the distance of the each other should be same.

Cam ring:

Inside the casing cam ring is situated. Mainly the wall of the casing the cam ring is attached.

Sliding vanes:

In the rotor’s slot the sliding vanes are placed. The shape of this equipment is rectangular and spring is used to attach it with the slots. Spring is generally use for flexible movement of the sliding vanes. Sliding vanes are placed in this way that it could moves in the rotor without any problems.


Impellers are used to convert the energy. The impellers are placed in the vanes of the pump. When the power is generating by the impellers it convert energy mechanical to output power.

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Vane pump types:

The vane positive displacement pump is classified in three sections. They are,

Unbalanced vane positive displacement pump:

In the industry of automobiles and steering of vehicles it is used in wide range. One of the most commonly used vane type pump is unbalanced vane positive displacement pump.

The liquid substance in the vane positive displacement pumps not facing any leakage in the vane tip and housing.

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The lateral thrust which is appearing in the shaft of the rotor when the working purpose of the unbalanced vane pump is not too well. The lateral thrust can be explained as when the pressure is differentiating between the outlet valve and suction valve. This unwanted situation decreases the bearing lifetime of the shaft.

A cylindrical shaped rotor is placed in the counteracting in the housing which is also in shaped circular. The both centre for the housing and rotor not coincide to each other. The housing and rotor is placed as that manner where their distance should be same to each other.

The cylindrical rotor also contained radial grooved. The rotor is installed in the pump’s drive shaft. The grooves are carried vanes, and vanes are placed in same distance to each other and moved freely using centrifugal force in rotation method. The rotors are moved inside the cam ring. The surface contact is take place between the rotor and cam ring.

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Balanced vane positive displacement pump:

In the balanced vane positive displacement pump’s inside the pressure is always stays in balanced position. The two inlets are contained by the pump. This is the main reason behind the balanced pressure. The balanced vane positive displacement pump carried one outlet and two inlets.

The inlet valves of the unbalanced pump are installed in the opposite direction to each other and outlet valve is also placed opposite to inlets valve. The offset is not present inside the balance vane positive pump.

In the casing the whole system of the balanced pump equipments are placed. The shape casing of the balance vane pump is elliptical. The centres are same for the both rotor and casing.

The purpose of the inlet valve is to suck the fluid substance from the outer side and the purpose of the outlet valve is to drainage the fluid substance to the outside of the pump.

If we go through the two vanes’ cavity then can observe that the size of the inlet valve to outlet valve is decreases.

In the balance vane positive displacement pump there is no lateral thrust is appear. The inlets and outlet valve is balancing their thrust force to each other.

Pressure amount inside the rotor in the area of the exit is too higher than the normal pressure but the position of the outlet valves are opposite to each other for this reason the force became equal and net load is not present in the bearing shaft and the lifetime of the bearing shaft is increases.

Variable displacement vane positive displacement pump:

In the variable displacement vane positive displacement pump the vanes of the rotor is not connecting directly to the housing.

The pockets sizes are different for the variable displacement vane positive displacement pump and also allow the different size. Size of the pockets can be change by the help of the adjusting screw.

Delivery rates are also different for the variable displacement vane positive displacement pump.

When the adjusting screw is moves in upward and downward direction as the same time reacting ring also moves in upward and downward in same time. Due to the he reaction ring movement changing the centre of the both rotor and ring is changes.

A ring is present in the variable displacement vane positive displacement pump’s middle portion of the casing and vane. This ring shaped equipment is known as reaction ring. This rings works as a connector between the spring and adjusting screw.

The flow rate is changes due to changes sizes of the pockets in the vane pump’s rotor.

Vane pumps working:

The vane positive displacement pump working process is briefly discuses in below,

  1. At the beginning of the process starting the power is generated by the motor which is driven by electric and power is go through by the shaft of the rotors. The rotor and shafts are connected to each other and when the rotor is start to move by using centrifugal pump the shaft is also moved.
  2. Multiple vanes are carried by the rotor.
  3. The outside liquid substance is hit the vanes of the shaft that time kinematic energy is convert into speed and goes into the casing.
  4. In the casing pressure is increases and liquid is sucks by the inlet valve.
  5. Pressure is squeezing and drain by the discharge valve.
Working of vane pump
Working of vane pump

Vane pumps application:

The applications of the vane positive displacement pump is given below,

  1. Filling up for the liquid petroleum gases’ cylinders.
  2. Bulk transferring is done by the help of this vane positive displacement pump for ammonia and liquid petroleum gas.
  3. Beverage processing done by this vane positive displacement pump.
  4. In gas application vane positive displacement pump is widely used.
  5. In automobile sector vane positive displacement pump is used.
  6. In oil application vane positive displacement pump is used.
  7. Where high pressure is used as the application there vane positive displacement pump is used. In automobile sectors for steering of the vehicles this pump is used.
  8. In air conditioning system vane positive displacement pump is used.

Indrani Banerjee

Hi..I am Indrani Banerjee. I completed my bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering. I am an enthusiastic person and I am a person who is positive about every aspect of life. I like to read Books and listen to music. Let's connect through LinkedIn-

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