Vanadium Chemical Properties (25 Facts You Should Know)

Vanadium is a 3d transition metal element with 3 unpaired electrons in its outermost shell and shows metallic character. Let us learn more facts about vanadium below.

Vanadium occurs naturally in ores and the isolated element is hard and silvery grey in color. It is malleable and lies in transition metal series. It is the third chemical element in transition metal series with high heat of vaporization and molar heat capacity.  It has BCC crystal lattice structure.

Vanadium was first isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in the year 1867 in the pure form. Let us discuss more facts like atomic weight, cas number, state of vanadium.

Vanadium symbol

The atomic symbol of vanadium is V. It is named after the goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadis by Nils Gabriel Sefstrom who discovered it.

Atomic symbol of vanadium element, a 3d transition series metal.

Vanadium group in periodic table

The group that vanadium belongs to in the periodic table is 5. As the outermost electrons are five, so it lies in group 5.

Vanadium period in periodic table

Vanadium lies in 3rd period of a periodic table. Sc and Ti comes first followed by V in the series.

Vanadium block in periodic table

Vanadium belongs to d-block in a periodic table as the last electron enters d subshell in a 3d orbit.

Vanadium atomic number

The atomic number of vanadium is 23. Vanadium has 23 protons in the nucleus which are positively charged.

Vanadium atomic weight

The atomic weight of vanadium is 50.94 µ. From atomic weight, we can calculate number of neutrons present in any element.

Vanadium Electronegativity according to Pauling

The electronegativity of vanadium calculated as per Pauling scale is 1.63. It has lesser electronegativity than carbon.

Vanadium atomic density

The atomic density of vanadium is 6.11 g/cm3. Density is higher in V due to the metallic character present.

Vanadium melting point

The melting point of vanadium is 2183 K or 1910 0C. The high melting point is due to the presence of three unpaired electrons in 3d orbitals.

Vanadium boiling point

The boiling point of vanadium is 3407 0C/ 3680 K. V has 3 unpaired electrons that gives metallic character.

Vanadium Van der Waals radius

The Van Der Waals radius of vanadium is not yet estimated or calculated.

Vanadium ionic radius

The ionic radius of Vanadium is 154 pm which is greater than the atomic radius (134 pm) of V.

Vanadium isotopes

Isotopes are chemical elements with same number of protons but have different neutrons ratio. Let us check the number of isotopes for vanadium.

Vanadium has two isotopes that occurs naturally with different atomic masses. They are listed below.

  • 50V with atomic mass of 49.9472.
  • 51V with atomic mass of 50.9440.

Vanadium electronic shell

Electronic shell are scientific representation of an element about how the electrons are distributed in the orbits. Let us check for vanadium.

The electronic shell of vanadium is [ 2 8 11 2 ] which represents the electrons’ in different orbits.

Vanadium energy of first ionization

The first energy of ionization of vanadium is 650.87 kJ/mol. It is high not as V does not have half filled state.

Vanadium energy of second ionization

The second energy of ionization of vanadium is 1414 kJ/mol. The energy is higher than the first one as V is in +1 state.

Vanadium energy of third ionization

The third energy of ionization of vanadium is 2830 kJ/mol. The third electron needs to be removed from high energy V2+.

Vanadium oxidation states

The oxidation states shown by vanadium are -3, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 and +5 in case it forms amphoteric oxides. The d orbitals can show many states.

Vanadium electron configurations

The electronic configuration of vanadium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2 or [Ar] 3d3 4s2.

Vanadium CAS number

The CAS number of vanadium is 7440-62-2. This number is unique and special only for V.

Vanadium ChemSpider ID

The ChemSpider ID of vanadium YW1355000. Using this number, V chemical and physical properties can be found.

Vanadium allotropic forms

Allotropism is a phenomenon shown by moieties of the same element with different chemical properties. Let us see the allotropic forms of V in details below.

Vanadium has no allotropes discovered so far and shows no allotropism. It is found in only one pure elemental state.

Vanadium state at room temperature

The state of vanadium at room temperature is solid. The metallic bond gives this character at STP.

Is vanadium paramagnetic?

Paramagnetism is a phenomenon shown by materials that align themselves in the direction of external magnetic field. Let us discuss more in details.

Vanadium is a paramagnetic material as it is has 3 unpaired electrons in 3d orbitals that can show magnetism when external magnetic field is applied to it.


Vanadium occurs naturally in ores that shown paramagnetic nature and metallic character. It is a solid material that can form many oxo complexes in normal conditions.

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