21 UnSaturated Hydrocarbon Examples: Facts You Should Know

Unsaturated hydrocarbons are examples of organic molecules that are composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Let us discuss examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

A list of Unsaturated hydrocarbon examples is given below.

  1. Alkenes (CnH2n)
  1. Alkynes (CnH2n-2)
  1. Aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbon

Alkenes (CnH2n)

Alkenes have a carbon-carbon double bond with the general formula R2C=CR2(CnH2n). Alkenes are double bonds generated by unsaturated hydrocarbons with one sigma bond and one pi bond. They produce oily compounds, hence they are also known as olefines.


Ethene is also known as ethylene and has the chemical formula H2C = CH2. Ethene is the IUPAC name, and it is a colourless, combustible gas with a pleasant, musky smell.


Propylene is the common name of propene and has the chemical formula CH3CH=CH2 that is the second-simplest member of the alkene. Propene has a double bond and is an odourless gas with a slight oily scent.


The chemical compound 1-butene, often called 1-butylene, has the formula CH3CH2CH=CH2. It is a colourless liquid that easily condenses from a colourless gas.


The chemical compound 1-pentene has a CH2=CH-CH2-CH2-CH3 double bond on the first carbon. Additionally, it is used to combine high-octane gasoline.


The chemical compound 2-pentene has a CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH3 double bond on the second carbon atom. It is employed as an inhibitor of polymerization and in chemical synthesis.


Hex-1-ene has a CH2=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 double bond at first carbon. It is also known as alpha carbon. Hex-1-ene is a higher olefin compound.

Alkynes (CnH2n-2)

An alkyne is a triple bond generated by hydrocarbon containing one sigma bond and two pi bonds. Alkynes are defined as molecules with a triple bond between two carbon atoms. Acetylene is the common term for hydrophobic alkyne.


Ethyne is the most basic alkyne and has the chemical formula CH≡CH. Because it has two carbon atoms that are bonded triply to one another. Pure ethyne is quite unstable.


Propyne is a chemical compound, that has a CH3-C≡CH triple bond in it and appears as an odourless, colourless liquid gas. 


But-1-yne is an organic substance with the chemical formula HC≡CCH2CH3, combustible nature, and colourless gas.


But-2-yne is an unsaturated alkyne compound having a chemical formula CH3C≡CCH3. This is commonly called dimethylacetylene and is an artificial compound.


Pent-1-yne is a terminal alkyne and has the chemical formula CH≡C-CH2-CH2-CH3. 1-Pentyne was utilised in the preparation process of asymmetric synthesis.


Hexyne is a six-carbon-containing compound of alkene, it is present in liquid form at room temperature and is pale yellow. The chemical formula of Hex-1-yne is CH≡CCH2CH2CH2CH3.

Aromatic Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

Aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbons are six-carbon planar rings joined by hydrogen atoms and have more than one benzene ring. Delocalization of pi electrons or double bonds in the benzene ring takes place due to resonance.


It is the simplest and basic of all unsaturated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, having the chemical formula C6H6. All the six carbon atoms are attached in the form of a ring with an alternate double bond. Benzene is carcinogenic and forms polystyrene(polymer).


Naphthalene is an unsaturated aromatic hydrocarbon with the mixing of pair of benzene rings. These rings are its main structural component. It is most well-known for being the major component of conventional mothballs.


Anthracene is the simplest tricyclic aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbon, which is also called green oil or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH). The benzene ring, also known as an aromatic ring, is present in anthracene which is an aromatic hydrocarbon


Phenol is made up of C6OH5OH. It mostly consists of phenyl and hydroxyl groups and is referred to as carbolic acid. The chemical can be found in small amounts in a variety of common items, including spray cleaners and mouth cleaners.


Toluene’s chemical composition is a CH3 group linked to a phenyl group which is called a mono-substituted benzene group.


Furan is the heterocyclic aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbon and is distinguished by having a ring. These rings consist of one oxygen atom and four carbon atoms.


Alkenes and alkynes are two types of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Because of the double and triple bonds present, organic compounds experience unsaturation. Due to the existence of carbon and hydrogen, they are unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Monika Saini

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