Types of RNA Splicing: Detailed Facts


RNA splicing is the method in the field of molecular biology where the new made precursor messenger RNA transcription is converted to the mature mRNA.

There are several ways by which RNA splicing takes place sin nature and it is based on the splicing type on the base of the intron and the used catalyst that shall help it to take place. The types of RNA splicing are

Self-Splicing

It is the type of RNA splicing that takes place in few of the rare introns that are able to help promote the phosphodiester bond gaps.

This type or gap helps in making of the phosphodiester bond without the use of other proteins or rest spliceosomes. The introns that are involved in it are unique as they shall be able to mediate the excision from the precursor RNA and the ligation of the subsequent of the flanking of the exons in the very simple salt buffer.

This reaction is self-splicing and is worked upon by the tertiary part of the intron that shall help in making of the base for intron and helps it with the ability to recognize the sites of splicing for the precursor RNA and help it perform the ligation and the cutting part in the precise way possible.

The pattern that is there in these introns is able to perform being a ribozyme that shall help in the regulation of the whole process. There are there groups done for this part of RNA splicing and are termed to be Group I, Group II and Group III. The functions of each of the group are same but also different at the same time.

The Group I and Group II introns help in making of the process same to spliceosomes, t can be said that the introns are evolutionary related to spliceosomes. At this time, the 5’ is identified by a small element in the introns and is called the internal guide sequence. It consists of two reactions of Tran’s esterification an involved removal of the introns and the exon ligation.

Image credit-
Self SplicingWikipedia

Alternate splicing

It is an alternate process for having the RNA spliced at the time of gene expression that shall helps in a single gene to code itself for the other proteins.

Here in this type of RNA splicing the exons of the gene shall be taken into play from the resulted mRNA that is made from the gene. It states that the exons that are linked in several combinations lead to varying strands of messenger RNA.

It occurs in a good state in the eukaryotes. It has the ability to increase its diversity of proteins here which also can be encoded by the genome. In us, 95% of the multi existing genes are made to splice alternate. There are the presences of many nodes for this process that can be seen under which the most general form is the skipping of exon.

The process of this is based in the system if acting up the Trans proteins that shall link to the cis pint on the primary transcript to itself. Just like it, the proteins slicked activators also use it to promote the use of the particular site for the slice and the restores reside the use of this site. The method for this process is much variable and some of the examples for this is also been taken into eye mostly for the use of the process throughout.

Image credit-Alternate splicingWikipedia

tRNA splicing

There are many of the introns that interrupt the work of many genes in the eukaryotes and thus are removed by splicing and it is the vital step in expression of the genes.

In the eukaryotes there are four types of method that are used. The messenger RNA takes place in the phosphotransfer reaction on the complex and the dynamic machine. This function is related to the mechanism for two of the self-splicing way concerned with the introns of Group I and Group II.

The ones in the Group II are linked up with the identical way of splicing that helps in getting the common space of ancestor diverged. tRNA genes are also allowed to catalyze by all the three enzymes and the proteins and them are intrinsic of all the need for the hydrolysis of the ATP.

Image credit-
tRNA splicingWikipedia

Mostly in bacteria that are self-spliced. It was seen that the process of this in the eukaryote and the archaea are not related buy its seen now that the enzyme first used here is tRNA endonuclease is seen in the evolution of the structures if the archaea and the eukaryote. There are many upright being surprised have been seen out of the boom and thus the stricture with way comparison of the enzyme from these of the two are in much diverge line.

Recursive splicing types of RNA splicing

Recursive splicing (RS) is an evolutionarily conserved process of removing long introns via multiple steps of splicing. It was first discovered in Drosophila and recently proven to occur also in humans.

RNA splicing is an eukaryotic gene expression process in which this genetic information is modified as RNA. During splicing, specific regions of the RNA copy are cleaved and adjacent sequences glued together. The parts of gene sequences that are expressed in proteins are called exons, because they are expressed.

RNA splicing is a eukaryotic gene expression process in which this genetic information is modified as RNA. The key difference between RNA splicing and substitution splicing is that RNA splicing is the process of joining exons together of the main copy of mRNA whereas alternative splicing is the process of creating distinct combinations of exons of the same one gene.

Trans-splicing

It is a special type of getting the RNA process. Here the exons are of two types being the primary transcript of RNA that are link to the end of the final part and the other is the ligated.

Normal type of it is called the cis type and consists of a single molecule. The Trans splicing makes a single RNA transcript from the several separate pre messenger RNA. This way can be used for molecular where they help with the mutate product of genes.

When there is a view of any fusion taking place in the transcripts during the normal process in human cell, his mechanism acts behind having the oncogenic transcript of fusion.  On the other hand, the translated proteins are made to slice and have many different types of amino acids sequence and gave different biological use.

Also this process get into the help allowing the human genome to have direct synthesis for many of the proteins that shall be an outcome expected from the 20,000 of the genes coding proteins. The transfer RNA are made to interrupt the introns but the process of splicing is actually different as it helps in getting them catalyzed and all takes place in Archaea, bacteria and the eukaryote.

What is RNA splicing?

RNA splicing is the way that makes the use of both precursor and mature RNA. It helps by getting the introns removed.

The very process of RNA splicing is started with getting then spliceosomes or the ribonucleoproteins linked with the introns that are seen on the site of RNA splicing. This linking of the ribonucleoproteins outcomes in the biochemical way and is called the Trans esterification in between the nucleotides.

At the section where the 3’OH is there of a concerned nucleotide on top of the intron that is defined with the assembly of spliceosome and outcomes to a attack of nucleophile on the very first nucleotide of the intron at the site of 5’ splice.  The spliceosomes are said to be a different part of protein group.

types of rna splicing
Image credit-
RNA splicing-Wikipedia

This shall result in getting the ends of 5’ and 3’ folded up making it look like a loop. On the other hand, the adjacent parts of the exons are also liked up together. At the end, finally the intron loop is kept detached from the sequence of the spliceosomes. The spliceosomes are also called to be ribozymes and are in control and regulation process.

After all the 1st phase, the second transesterification reaction takes place at the time of ligation of the adjacent segment of the exon. Here, the 3’OH part of the 5’exon that is released and performs in an attack of electrophilic on the very start present nucleotide and exactly at the site of the last present nucleotide at the intron on the 3’ splice site.

This causes the bonding of the two parts of the exon with the intron part being removed. Earlier, the very intron is kept outside at the time of splicing and is thought to be a unit of junk. Thus, yet it is still observed now that these are a part of the method where the proteins are kept to be removed.

ANKITA CHATTOPADHYAY

I am Ankita Chattopadhyay from Kharagpur. I have completed my B. Tech in Biotechnology from Amity University Kolkata. I am a Subject Matter Expert in Biotechnology. I have been keen in writing articles and also interested in Literature with having my writing published in a Biotech website and a book respectively. Along with these, I am also a Hodophile, a Cinephile and a foodie.

Recent Posts