Types of Nitrogenous Bases In RNA: Detailed Facts

RNA is also termed as ribonucleic acid and is a same molecular to that of the DNA with RNA just being single stranded.

The types of nitrogenous bases in RNA are-

Any molecule that has nitrogenous has quite of a chemical characteristic at the base.

The nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine. RNA also has same types of nitrogenous bases yet with one only exception which is the uracil is there instead of thymine. The nitrogen have biological related material with complements of nitrogenous.

Any RNA has a backbone which is made up of several sugars in alternating form namely the ribose and also having a group called the phosphate groups. The RNA is actually a linear molecule that has several other four small molecules.

As said already with the types of nitrogenous bases in RNA, RNA is an acronym to the word ribonucleic acid. It is an important molecule that is seen in the cells and is needed for life. The pieces of the RNA are actually used up to make the proteins in the body for the growth of the cell and make them stay in place.

Adenine

Adenine is in general a nucleobase with a derivative of purine. It is the one of the four seen bases in the nucleic acid.

The one in the DNA is represented as G-C-A-T and in RNA is as G-C-A-U. Apart from adenine, the others are guanine, cytosine, and thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. They are derives from biochemistry.

The derivatives of the bases are much rich in energy with ATP and has coenzyme A. It is also need in synthesis of proteins and also is a chemical component for the DNA and RNA. The shape of it is complementary to that of wither uracil or thymine.

The time when adenine is linked with DNA, there is a formation of covalent bond and is made in between ribose sugar and then at the base of left is nitrogen. The rest of the residue is called to be adenine residue. It is made to react with ribose and used in RNA.

Image credit- AdenineWikipedia

Cytosine

The nucleoside of cytosine is cytosine. In the base paring of Watson Crick model, cytosine forms a hydrogen bond along with guanine.

It is one of the rest nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA. It is a derivative of pyrimidine along with the heterocyclic ring being aromatic and two of the substitutes that have been attached. 

It was discovered by Albrecht Kossel in 1894. A structure was synthesized in lab was proposed in 1903. Cytosine is much part of DNA AND RNA. It acts as a co factor of the enzyme and then can transfer to the phosphate and get t converted from ADP to ATP.

Cytosine is one of the four building blocks of DNA and RNA. So it’s one of the four nucleotides that’s present both in DNA, RNA, and each cytosine makes up part of the code

Image credit- CytosineWikipedia

Uracil

The base of uracil is replaced by thymine in DNA. Uracil is seen to be demethylated from the thymine.

In the RNA, Uracil is actually much common and has a natural occurrence. It can be found in herring sperm, spleen and the thymus. It is an unsaturated compound which can absorb light.

Uracil base replaces thymine and links with adenine during DNA transcription in RNA. There is an increase in thymine substitution and thus DNA replicated well. When the phosphate combines with uredines, it makes urine 5-monphsphare.

Image credit- UracilWikipedia

Guanine

RNA as a part in its role is the actual photocopy of the DNA in the cell with just a gap of one difference in the base.

It is made to pair with cytosine. The nucleotide of cytosine is called guanosine. It is a purine derivative and forms a ring system and is a unsaturated molecule being planar.

It is an organic compound with two ring face made of carbon and atoms of nitrogen. It is free in its occurrence and is combined with many diverse sources that are natural like the guano excrement and the dead body of the bats seals and birds.

The composition of guanine in human is about 28% with adenine being 22, thymine being 22. T helps in binding with the proteins that activates the receptors and used up as ion channel. The word guanine derives from the Spanish loanword guano which itself is from the Quechua word wanu, meaning “dung”.

Image credit- GuanineWikipedia

How are the types of nitrogenous bases in RNA and DNA different?

RNA is said to be one of the three major molecules in biology which is vital for all the living forms with the rest being the DNA and the proteins.

Uracil is seen in RNA and combines with adenine while thymine is seen in DNA that binds with adenine. The DNA makes RNA makes proteins. The other adenine, cytosine and guanine are same in both DNA and RNA.

The cells have their own workhorses and those are the proteins and they its role inside the cell as the enzymes with helping in cell signaling, getting the components structures. DNA is said to be the short of deoxyribonucleic acid.

The DNA is the blueprint of cell with carrying all the genetic related information for the growth of the cell and the stakes in nutrients to help it propagate. There is a central tenet for the molecular biology that states that the genetic flow if data in the cell is from the DNA to the proteins via the RNA.

At the time while the cells need to produce a specific protein, the gets to activate the gene where the part of the DNA that codes the proteins and then makes multiple copies if the specific part of DNA in the form of messenger RNA. The several copies of the messenger RNA are then made to translate the genetic coding in protein via cell action making ribosomes.

With this the RNA then expands the amount of protein which is specifically given  and is made one at a time with having vital control points for regulation and managing the protein that has been made. All the protein is made at one time and is sure to have coded the gene one by one.

types of nitrogenous bases in rna
Image credit- Nitrogenous basesWikipedia

There are three major roles of the RNA in the cell which are-

  • RNA acts as a copy of DNA and as a coupler for the genetic code and the amino acids as a component of structure fir the ribosomes. The uses of RNA are much broader and vital with being interesting.
  • The RNA also can act as the enzymes that shall help up in getting the reaction work faster. In many of clinics it has been seen that, the microbes RNA carry the sprayed genetic data.
  • It also helps I getting the function of cell regulated. Its tarts from the process of cell division and the goes to differentiation and the cell growth and along with its aging and the end with cell death. There are certain defects that are seen in RNA or while having it regulated and is faced as diseases in humans.
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