19+ True Fruit Example: Detailed Explanations And Images

This article includes the True Fruit Example and its descriptions. So, true fruit examples are at your fingertips. “Just one click away”- As a layman, we only knew about the fruit which means something attractive, juicy and pulpy containing seed(s). But biologically, fruit is also categorised into many parts.

So, the fruit is just the fate of the ovary and a major consequence of the process of fertilization. They are subdivided into True Fruit and False Fruit. True fruit is none other than the ripened ovary having one or more than one seed. Here are some true fruit examples:

Let us see the 20+ True Fruit Example

The branch of science that deals with the study of the development and cultivation of fruit are known as Pomology. We can say that fruit is the ripened ovary that surrounds the seed(earlier, ovules). Fruit is formed by the fusion of gametes i.e. male and female gametes of the plant to form a zygote, known as fertilization.

As based on other parameters, fruits are classified into different groups, even, the development of fruit is the major cause to creates the division into plant kingdom that is Gymnosperm(naked seed) and Angiosperm(seed covered with ovary wall) but based on development, fruit is categorised into two categories,

  1. True fruit
  2. False fruit

True fruit:

It develops from the ovary. The fruit consists of pericarp and seed. The pericarp is further divided into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. So, due to this reason, true fruit is also known as Eucarp. True fruits are also divided into 3 major groups:

  1. Simple fruit
  2. Aggregate fruit and
  3. Multiple fruits
The figure shows the classification of fruits.

According to the positions of seed and pericarp, true fruits are grouped into-

Drupe( Stony Fruit):

Fruits are developed from monocarpellary or multicarpellary, syncarpous fertilized ovary. Epicarp of these fruits are responsible for the hard rind, the mesocarp is fleshy or sometimes maybe fibrous and the endocarp forms a stone-like centre. Examples: Coconut, Mango, Cherry etc.

Berry(Bacca):

Fruits are developed from monocarpellary or multicarpellary, syncarpous fertilized ovary. The Epicarp of these fruit forms a rind layer, the mesocarp is fleshy while the endocarp is a thin layer(membrane-like structure). Examples: Tomato, Grapes, Guava etc.

Pepo:

This fruit resembles berries. Epicarp makes a hard rind and has multiple seeds. This type of fruit belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. Examples: Watermelon, Muskmelon, Pumpkin etc.

Hesperidium:

Fruits are developed from monocarpellary or multicarpellary, syncarpous superior ovary. Many oil glands are present on the epicarp. Mesocarp is a fibrous and white part connected with epicarp while endocarp is hairy and membranous projects inside to form multiple chambers. These all are edible parts. Basically family members of Citrus(Rutaceae) are examples.

False fruit:

It is developed from other accessory parts of the plants including the ovary like the base of the flower, peduncle, perianth, calyx, receptacle, thalamus and inflorescence. They formed without the process of fertilization that’s why this is also known as pseudocarp. The best example of the false fruit is Apple as it shows the modification of the thalamus. Other examples are:

  1. Banana
  2. Cashew
  3. Strawberry
  4. Pineapple
  5. Mulberry
  6. Jack fruit
  7. Figs
  8. Syzygium Jambos
  9. Papaya
  10.  Gourd

Other examples of true fruit and their descriptions:

1. Orange

Botanical name: Citrus sinensis

Family: Rutaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=18 (diploid)

Fruit type: Hespiridium

Orange
Image credit: Wikimedia commons

This fruit is native to subtropical and tropical America, Australia and South Africa. They are highly rich in vitamin A, vitamin C and other essential electrolytes plus minerals. Having leathery rinds with oil glands contains juicy and sweet-sour edible flesh. They are slightly acidic due to the presence of citric acid.

2. Lemon

Botanical name: Citrus lemon

Family: Rutaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=18 (diploid)

Fruit type: Hespiridium

Are first grown in Assam, Northern Burma also some regions of China. They are highly rich in vitamin C while other nutrients and minerals are low in fat content. Fruit contains a high level of flavonoids and essential oils. Although they are frost-resistant because of their low compositions of carbohydrates, they can freeze easily even at that normal temperature at which other plants can easily survive.

3. Tangerine

Botanical name: Citrus reticulata

Family: Rutaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=18 (diploid)

Fruit type: Hespiridium

They are native to Southeast Asia and Europe and are abundant in vitamin C. Fruits are almost similar to an orange but are smaller in size. Trees and shrubs forms are available in gardens. It is also called as Mandarine-Orange. Fruit having leathery epicarp with juicy endocarp(carpels sections) containing 5-10 seeds(fertilised ovules).

4. Water-melon

Botanical name: Citrullus lanatus

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=22 (diploid)

Fruit type: Pepo

They are native to South Africa (Tropical-Africa). Fruits are rich in vitamin A, C and vitamin B6. They are also abundant in other essential amino acids. They contain some specific ions like magnesium and potassium but are low in fat and calories. Fruit contains 92% of water which keeps you hydrated and also helps in the reduction of reactive oxygen species(ROS) activity. It possesses antioxidant activity. While “seedless watermelon” is triploid i.e. standard chromosomes are 3X form causes sterility in plants are in plain-dark green in colour.

5. Musk-melon

Botanical name: Cucumis melo

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=24 (diploid)

Fruit type: Pepo

This is originated in Persia and also native to Persia and other nearby regions. It is also known as nutmeg-melon and cantaloupes in some regions of the world mostly in the Northern hemisphere of the Globe. In India, it is mostly found in Kashmir and some other nearby states. As the name suggests, musk is derived from the word musk-deer having a different aroma(musky-scented). Fruit is a good source of zeaxanthin, alpha and beta carotene. Vitamin D and E are major components and are arginine-rich.

6. Cucumber

Botanical name: Cucumis sativus

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=14 (diploid)

Fruit type: Pepo

Plants originated in Greece and Italy while spread over Western Asia and some other countries. Flowers are pollinated by bumblebees. They are rich in water content and other minerals like calcium, potassium, magnesium and manganese. Fruits are a good source of many phytonutrients like flavonoids, terpenoids, diterpenes and triterpenes etc. They are having low compositions of carbohydrates, fat and cholesterol and contain a small amount of vitamin A, C and K.

7. Pumpkin

Botanical name: Cucurbita moschata

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=40 (diploid)

Fruit type: Pepo

Trees are native to North America, Mexico and the United States. The growing season lies in between January- and March and September to December. The rind is smooth & lightly grooved towards the inside and is used to make pickles. They are also called as winter-squash. It is rich in vitamin C and β-carotene; ions like calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and iron are abundant in this fruit.

8. Coconut

Botanical name: Cocos nucifera

Family: Arecaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=32 (diploid)

Fruit type: Drupe

The fruit was originated in Southeast Asia and natively found in tropical coastal areas in India. The edible part of the fruit is endocarp and known as coconut meat while the coconut water is the liquid endosperm. The embryo is in a white-coloured endocarp enclosed in a hard shell known as a coir. They are highly nutritious containing a good amount of water. Fruit is also rich in multiple nutrients like iron, phosphorous and zinc. It contains 80-90% of saturated fats. This is used commercially across the globe. It is also used energy-giving drink in summers.

9. Mango

Botanical name: Mangifera indica

Family: Anacardiaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=40 (diploid)

Fruit type: Drupe

Trees are native to India and Southeast Asia and contain many the phytochemicals like mangiferin, anthocyanin, catechins, benzoic acid, kaempferol, gallic acid etc. It contains super-antioxidant which help in the deduction of reactive oxygen species responsible for lipid peroxidation. This fruit is rich in vitamin A and vitamin E and other electrolytes like folate, copper and magnesium. The edible part is a fleshy, juicy, yellow coloured mesocarp.

10. Cherry

Botanical name: Prunus avium

Family: Rosaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=16 (diploid)

Fruit type: Berry

The trees are deciduous and native to Northern-temperate regions, North America, Western Asia and some parts of Europe. Flowers are very beautiful and pink in colour growing in temperate summer. Initially, they are found at archaeological sites. Cherries are of two types:

Heart-type is having soft and fleshy endocarp while bigarreau-type is crisp-fleshed

11. Peach

Botanical name: Prunus persica

Family: Rosaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=16 (diploid)

Fruit type: Drupe

Trees have beautiful pink flowers with five petals blooming in the month of January- to February. Fruits are velvety, soft and fleshy. The growth of trees is 8 to 10 metres long and wind pollination is observed in peach flowers.

12. Plums

Botanical name: Prunus domestica

Family: Rosaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=16 (diploid)

Fruit type: Drupe

Plums Image credit: Pixabay

Plants are mostly trees and shrubs. Flowers and fruits are attractive as peaches and cherries. Ther are long as 9 metres approx. Mostly used to make cakes, jams and other bakery foods.

13. Chikoo

Botanical name: Manilkara zapota

Family: Sapotaceae

Chromosomes: 2n=14(varies species to species)

Fruit type: Drupe

This fruit is also known as Sapota in some parts of the country. As per the statement from the Times of India, Chikoo is good for health as they contain high anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. Fruits are rich in caloric contents and sweet in taste. The high percentage of vitamin C and vitamin E helps in the improvement of skin that’s why also used for cosmetic purposes.

14. Olive

Botanical name: Olea europaea

Family: Oleaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=46 (diploid)

Fruit type: Drupe

Olive
Image credit: Pixabay

Olives are mostly used for ornamental purposes. They are having a maximum oil content and are native to subtropical regions of the world.

15. Walnut

Botanical name: Juglans regia

Family: Juglandaceae

Chromosomes:  2n=32

Fruit type: Drupe

Walnuts are rounded-single seeded fruit with a hard shell. Botanically, it’s not a nut. They are also rich in anti-oxidants and oil contents and help in the prevention of rancidification of aldehydes and fatty acids.

16. Kiwi

Botanical name: Actinidia deliciosa

Family: Actinidiaceae

Chromosomes: 6n=174 (shows polyploidy, hexaploid)

Fruit type: Berry (True berry)

Kiwi
Image credit: Flickr

They are native to China and Taiwan while commercially grown in New Zealand and California and exported throughout the world which is why possess high market value.

17. Blueberry

Botanical name: Vaccinium sect. cyanococcus

Family: Ericaceae

Chromosomes: shows polyploidy (diploid to hexaploid)

Fruit type: Berry (True berry)

They are a very good source of vitamin C and vitamin K and manganese ions with multiple anti-oxidants. They are mostly shrubs with 55-60 inches in length. Apart from the good taste, it also helps in maintaining metabolism and prevents us from coronary diseases.

18. Date palm

Botanical name: Phoenix dactylifera

Family: Arecaceae

Chromosomes: 2n=36

Fruit type: Berry

Commonly they are known as dates and contain almost 15 species. They show geitonogamy type of pollination. Due to being rich in nutrition, they became the staple food of Iran, Iraq and other nearby portions of the country. They are initially cultivated in the Indus Valley region. They need the soil free from calcium-carbonate for proper growth and development.

19. Guava

Botanical name: Psidium guajava

Family: Myrtle

Chromosomes: 2n=44

Fruit type: Berry

They are native to tropical America and sub-tropical worldwide and are rich in both water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. They can be easily grown by the grafting method of reproduction. Fruit might be helpful in the reduction of blood sugar levels in type-2 diabetes.

20. Grapes

Botanical name: Vitis vinifera

Family: Vitaceae

Chromosomes: 2n=38

Fruit type: Berry

Due to inhibition in the production of anthocyanin, some species are purple in colour. They are low in protein while keeping you hydrated by their high water content. They are mostly used in the formation of different types of alcohol & beverages. They are also used in the making of cakes, jams, jellies and other edible items.

21. Pomegranate

Botanical name: Punica granatum

Family: Punicaceae

Chromosomes: 2n=16

Fruit type: Berry

true fruit example
Pomegranate Image credit: Pixabay

They are native to the Himalayas and widely cultivated throughout India. They need slightly acidic loamy soil to grow. They are highly rich in iron as suggested by physicians to increase the blood-haemoglobin levels. They are abundant in antioxidants and other minerals. They have a different phytochemical i.e. ellagitannins, also known as “punicalagin”

22. Tomato

Botanical name: Solanum lycopersicum

Family: Solanaceae

Chromosomes: 2n=24

Fruit type: Berry

True fruit example
Tomato Image credit: Flickr

The most specific feature of the family Solanaceae is having persistent calyx. They originate from Central America. They are a good source of vitamin C and have a specific phytochemical “lycopene”. They are used for domestic purposes, for making ketchup and puree etc. They are pollinated by bumblebees and are known as buzz pollination.

23. Avocado

Botanical name: Persea americana

Family: Lauraceae

Chromosomes: 2n=24

Fruit type: Berry

Avocado Image credit: Flickr

They are native to the Western hemisphere of the globe. They provide riboflavin, biotin and thiamine and possess nutty flavour. They are used as a salad in some parts of the world. They are also rich in oil content and possess unsaturated oils.

24. Betal-nut(Supari)

Botanical name: Areca catechu

Family: Arecaceae

Chromosomes: 2n=32

Fruit type: Berry

Betal nut Image credit: Flickr

They are native to major parts of South Africa. They are used for medicinal preparations for schizophrenia and other disorders. They possess some phytochemicals like arecatannin, arecoline and gallic acid. Chewing the nut is injurious to health as leads to the formation of tumours, banned by the government in some regions of the country.

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