27 Transition Metal Examples: Facts You Should Know


Transition metals are the elements with incomplete d shells that shows varying oxidation states, metallic, thermal properties. Let us discuss several facts below.

The 27 transition metals examples with their groups are given below.

Serial No.Group in periodic tableExamples of elements
1.Group 3 Scandium (Sc), Yttrium (Y), Lanthanide series.
2.Group 4Titanium (Ti), Zirconium (Zr), Hafnium (Hf)
3.Group 5Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo), Tungsten (W)
4.Group 6Manganese (Mn), Technetium (Tc), Rhenium (Re)
5.Group 7Iron (Fe), Ruthenium (Ru), Osmium (Os)
6.Group 8Cobalt (Co), Rhodium (Rh), Iridium (Ir)
7.Group 9Nickel (Ni), Palladium (Pd), Platinum (Pt)
8.Group 10Copper (Cu), Silver (Ag), Gold (Au)
9.Group 11Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg)
Transition metals categorized under different groups.

Group 3 –

  • Scandium (Sc)
  • Yttrium (Y)
  • Lanthanide (La)

Sc, Y and La belong to group 3 transition metal series with electronic configuration (n-1)d1ns2. It can lose up to 3 electrons from their outermost valence and penultimate shells with oxidation states from 0 to +3.The lanthanide series starts with elements from 51 to 71 At. no.

Group 4 –

  • Titanium (Ti)
  • Zirconium (Zr)
  • Hafnium (Hf)

Ti, Zr and Hf have electronic configuration (n-1)d2ns2 and can lose up to 4 electrons to show variable oxidation states from +1 to +4. Ti is widely used in semiconductor and nanoparticles’ applications. They can also act as mixed oxides. Zr is used in ceramic industries, reactors.

Group 5 –

  • Chromium (Cr)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Tungsten (W)

Cr, Mo and W are group 4 transition metal series with 5 loosely bonded electrons that can show oxidation states up to +5. W is one of the strongest metals with high melting point. Cr is the most lustrous metal with maximum unpaired d electrons and imparts red color in ruby.

Group 6 –

  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Technetium (Tc)
  • Rhenium (Re)

Mn, Tc and Re have half filled d subshells which results in fairly low emission of light in visible region. This makes group 6 series elements have faint color. Mn is used in low percentage (1%) with steel to increase the strength and resistance to corrosion. Rh is a rare metal.

Group 7 –

  • Iron (Fe)
  • Ruthenium (Ru)
  • Osmium (Os)

Fe. Ru and Os have 6 valence electrons and 4 unpaired electrons. Fe is one of the components of heme. It shows magnetic behavior and used in alloys. Osmium tetroxide is used for synthesis of diols from alkenes. It is used in staining and as fixative. Ru red is used as an inorganic dye.

Group 8 –

  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Rhodium (Rh)
  • Iridium (Ir)

Co, Rh and Ir have a total of 9 outermost electrons. Rh and Ir are widely used in organometallic chemistry and in complexes. Co is found as a coenzyme in Vit B12 and is used a magnet in aircrafts. Rh complex is used for hydrogenation reaction like Wilkinson’s catalyst.

Group 9 –

  • Nickel (Ni)
  • Palladium (Pd)
  • Platinum (Pt)

Ni, Pd and Pt are silvery white lustrous metals with 10 outermost electrons. Ni is one of the most abundant metals on earth and forms square planar complexes with strong field ligand. It is used in batteries like Ni-Cd battery, automobiles, alloys to increase strength and ductility.

Group 10 –

  • Copper (Cu)
  • Silver (Ag)
  • Gold (Au)

Cu, Ag and Au are referred as coinage metals. They are mostly stable in +2 state with remarkable thermal and electrical conductivities. They are less softer metals than group 11. Sol Au particles are widely studied in nanoscience. Cu is used in Fehling solution for qualitative analysis.

Natural Ag is a mixture of two common isotopes of 107Ag and 109Ag. It is used in electrodes.

Group 11 –

  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Cadmium(Cd)
  • Mercury (Hg)

Zn, Cd and Hg are soft metals. They are generally considered non metals due to paired electron pairs and do not have significant 3d metals properties. They have very low melting and boiling points. Cd and Hg are not suitable for biological lives. Hg is found in liquid state at moderate temperature.

FAQs

Why transition metals show variable valency ?

Transition metals possesses maximum unpaired electrons. Let us discuss in details.

Transition metals show variable valency meaning variable oxidation states due to less energy difference between (n-1) penultimate and n valence shells. The unpaired electrons can undergo transition from one state to another by gaining or losing electrons.

Why transition metals have high melting and boiling points ?

Melting and boiling points depend on interatomic forces present among the atoms in a lattice. Let us study in details.

Transition metals have high melting and boiling points due to the presence of unpaired electrons and less energy difference between penultimate and valence shells. The unpaired electrons can undergo metallic bonding and show high interatomic interactions.

Conclusion

Transition metals includes as many as 27 elements with lanthanide series separately and they have applications from biological to industrial sectors due to their varying oxidation states and metallic characters.

Nandita Biswas

Hello. I am doing my Masters in Chemistry with a specialization in organic and physical chemistry. Also, I have done two projects in chemistry- One dealing with colorimetric estimation and determination of ions in solutions. Others in Solvatochromism study of fluorophores and their uses in the field of chemistry alongside their stacking properties on emission. I have also specialized in Resin chemicals. Let's connect through LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/nandita-biswas-244b4b179

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