Transgenic plants are defined as those plants whose DNA is alternated or modified by the genetic engineering methods like vector-mediated gene transfer, dipping methods and many latest technologies. It is the mainly process which includes one or more genes from different kind of species and introduced into the plant cell, combine with the plant DNA.
- Sweet potato
- Thale cress
- Filed mustard
- Bread wheat
- Capsicum annuum
- Leonurus japonica
- Viscum album
Genetically modifies corn are resistant to the insects. Specifically, European corn borer resistance to insect pests by the expression of gene Cry1 Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis, gene responsible for insecticidal protein.
Genetically modified soybean basically herbicide resistance. The glyphosate herbicide resistance provided by the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), a glyphosate tolerance gene isolated from the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefacien, strain CP4.
Genetically modified canola plant has altered fatty acid composition. Alteration of fatty acid, laurate level can be done by inserting the gene for ACP thioesterase. The ACP thioesterase gene is extracted from the California bay tree Umbellularia californica.
Genetically modified plum is resistance to viral attack or damage. The plum pox resistance is provided by insertion of a coat protein (CP) gene from the plum pox itself.
The genetically modified rice crop is highly enriched in the vitamin content. Beta-carotene is the precursor of vitamin A. There are three genes responsible for manufacture of beta carotene. Vitamin A is lost during the milling from the husks.
Hepatitis B viral surface antigen (HBsAg) are produced into the transgenic tobacco plant used as a vector. Then the antigen is extracted and help to induce the immune response when injected into the mice. Thus, the extracted antigens are responsible to produce the vaccines.
Transgenic maize is used to produce the oral vaccines. Fusion proteins (F) form Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) expressed in the maize plants. The protein is responsible to induce immune response when fed to chickens.
Transgenic sweet potato is tolerant to the abiotic and biotic stress, higher yields and improved nutritional values. The endotoxin cry8Db, cry7A1 and cry3Ca gene in the sweet potato are resistance to the sweet potato weevil insects.
Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) genetically modified of soil bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens used as a model plants to study the gene expression. It is done just by dipping into the solution having Agrobacterium carrying a plasmid of interest and a detergent. This method is known as ‘floral dip”. This method avoids the tissue culture process or plant regeneration.
Transgenic papaya is the papaya ringspot viral (PRSV) resistant. To achieve the viral resistance, use of RNAi strategy to construct the transgene that targets the PRSV CP gene and achieve the broad-spectrum resistance to the PRSV isolates.
The genetically modified potato plant is resistant to the pathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora spp… The bacteria infect the potato plants and cause severe damage to crops. Transgenic potato having the wild potato R gene RB or RPI-VNT1 responsible for antipathogenic properties. The gene provide strong resistance to bacteria Phytophthora infestans. GMO potato varieties are resistant to browning and bruising that usually happen during packaged, stored and transported.
The field mustard (Brassica napus) genetically modified to give property of herbicide resistance. The mustard DMH 11, GMO crop is resistant to the Bayer’s glufosinates, which is more toxin than the carcinogenic. Glufosinate is responsible to the nerve damage and birth defects.
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the cereal and staple crop in worldwide. This crop is genetically modified to increase the drought and stress resistance, increase the plant survival and improve the plant growth.
Transgenic melon is resistant to the Cucumber mosaic (CMV). The gene cmv1, is able to inhibit the CMV movement by restricting virus-attack to the phloem. .
The transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) plant to resistant to herbicide pursuit. The transgenic pea carries the gene ahas/als gene generally obtained from the soil bacteria Agrobacteria tumefaciens strain IBA4404.
The CaChiVI2 gene of Capsicum annuum L. responsible for resistance to heat stress and Phytophthora capsici.
Transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants are produced by the dipping method, where the radish is dipped in the suspension of Agrobacterium tumefacien carrying both beta- glucuronidase (gusA) gene and a gene for resistance to the herbicide Basta (bar) between T-DNA border sequences.
The motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) having antimicrobial property in its seeds. A novel small protein designated LJAMP1, having antimicrobial property was extracted from the seed of motherwort. LJAMP1 protein responsible for inhibition for the growth of fungi and bacteria.
The common chickweed (Stellaria media) having two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The SmAMP1.1a and SmAMP1.2a are the proteolytically released products of the single gene, proSmAMP1 expression. The transgenic species shows high resistance to the early blight caused by Alternaria spp.
From the Wasabi japonica, extracted the wasabi defensin (WD) used to develop fungal resistant varieties of rice, potato and melon. Resistance to blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) conferred by the overexpression of the wasabi defensin gene in the transgenic rice.
Misotletoe leaves and young twing are used as an herbicide. The gene responsible is vis3 is extracted the Viscum album and expressed into the other plants. The gene is also responsible to show anti cancerous properties.
To wrap up the article, we state that transgenic plants is the need of hours. We can add or delete our desired traits in the plants.