3 Superoxide Example: Facts That You Should Know


In this article we will discuss the 4 superoxide examples and facts that we should know.

Superoxides are the compound in which the dioxygen combines with the alkali metal. In which oxygen has a -1/2 oxidation number. The dioxygen is also called molecular oxygen which has two unpaired electrons.  Examples of superoxide compound are NaO2, KO2, RbO2 and CsO2.

  • NaO2
  • KO2
  • RbO2
  • CsO2

Sodium superoxide (NaO2)

Superoxide of sodium (NaO2) has a yellow-orange solid which contains a salt of the superoxide anion. It is an intermediate in the oxidation of sodium by oxygen.

When sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is reacted with oxygen at high pressure forms sodium peroxide NaO2 

Na2O2 + O2 → 2 NaO2

When a solution of sodium in ammonia undergoes oxygenation, it forms sodium superoxide.

Na (in NH3) + O2 → NaO2

Sodium superoxide is paramagnetic in nature.  The mixture of sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide and oxygen is formed when sodium superoxide (NaO2) undergoes hydrolysis.

Potassium superoxide (KO2)

Potassium superoxide (KO2) is an inorganic compound which has the chemical formula KO2. It is a yellow paramagnetic solid that decomposes in moist air. It is a rare salt formed by salt of potassium and dioxygen atom.

potassium superoxide is form molten potassium is burning in an atmosphere of oxygen.

K + O2 → KO2

Rubidium superoxide (RbO2)

Rubidium superoxide is a compound with the formula RbO2. The RbO2 is prepared by slowly exposing rubidium to oxygen gas.

Rb(s) + O2(g) → RbO2(s)

Like other alkali metal hyperoxides, crystals can also grow liquid ammonia. Between 280 and 360 °C, Rubidium superoxide will decompose, leaving not rubidium sesquioxide (Rb2O3), but rather rubidium peroxide (Rb2O2).

RbO2 (s) → 1/2 R2O2(s) + 1/2 O2(g)

Rubidium superoxide contains an excess of oxygen hence it is an oxygen-rich compound.  RbO2 superoxide from rubidium ozonide (RbO3). rubidium superoxide is hygroscopic in nature, still, it is stable in dry air. It is paramagnetic in nature. At low temperatures, it transitions to antiferromagnetic order, with a Neel temperature of 15 K.

Cesium superoxide (CsO2)

The superoxide of cesium is made up of cesium and oxygen. It is solid superoxide with orange colour. Cesium superoxide is prepared by burning of cesium in excess of  oxygen.

Cs + O2 → CsO2

The structure of cesium superoxide is crystalline same as that of calcium carbide. It contains oxygen-oxygen bonding. Hydrogen peroxide and cesium hydroxide form when cesium superoxide reacts with water

2 CsO2 + 2H2O → O2↑ + H2O2 + 2 CsOH

Cesium superoxide reacts with ozone to form cesium ozonide.

CsO2 + O3 → CsO3 + O2

Structure of superoxide anion

Superoxide anion contain two oxygen atom which has a 14 valence electrons with a negative charge which shows ability to donet electron. when these dioxygen is combine with alkali metal it forms superoxide . The stability of metal superoxide can be determine from their size and electro positivity of metal. if the size of metal is large and superoxide is more electropositive then it is more stable.

superoxide example
Superoxide ion structure wikipedia

What is superoxide ?

Ans: Superoxides are the compound in which the dioxygen combines with the alkali metal. In which oxygen has a -1/2 oxidation number. The dioxygen is also called molecular oxygen which has two unpaired electrons. 

What is the difference between superoxide and peroxide ?

Ans: superoxide and peroxide both are the oxides of oxygen . the difference between them is only the oxidation state . superoxide has -1/2 oxidation state and peroxide has -1 oxidation state.

What is the importance of reactive oxygen ion superoxide?

Ans: The reactive oxygen ion superoxide is particularly important as the product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen O 2, which occurs widely in nature.

What determines the stability of metal superoxides?

Ans: The stability of metal superoxide can be determine from their size and electro positivity of metal. if the size of metal is large and superoxide is more electropositive then it is more stable.

Conclusion

In the above article we will discuss about superoxide and its examples that are NaO2, KO2, RbO2 and CsO2 their properties, preparation and uses.

Darshana Fendarkar

Hi....I am Darshana Fendarkar, I have completed my Ph.D. from the University of Nagpur. My area of specialization is Inorganic Chemistry. I have an experience as a Chemist at Earthcare Pvt. Ltd. Also I have 2 years of experience in teaching. Currently, I am working with Lambdageek as a Subject Matter Expert. Let's connect through LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-darshana-fendarkar-00380540

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