State Of Dynamic Equilibrium: 5 Facts You Should Know

The equilibrium state is a balanced state of the system, a condition at which the system has reached the most stable state.

A state of dynamic equilibrium is achieved by the system due to the inevitable reversible process. The rate of reactants giving product and products turning back to the reactants remains constant and hence this state is called a dynamic equilibrium.

What is the state of dynamic equilibrium?

A dynamic state undergoes various changes and processes as the constituent of a system stimulates these changes by itself.

A state of equilibrium achieved by balancing all the forces arrived due to an imbalance of internal conditions and variable chemical reactions within the system is called a dynamic state of equilibrium.

A dynamic equilibrium state is a steady state of a system obtained by the internal activities of the system. The energy gained by the system makes its internal conditions unbalanced due to various forces acting on it. These forces are balanced by the components of the object. The heat energy is evenly supplied to all the molecules constituting the object.

Why is chemical equilibrium a dynamic state?

The chemical equilibrium is the state of balance between the product and the reactant.

It is a state of chemical solution at which the rate of formation of products from the reacting chemicals and the conversion of product to the reactant remains the same, thus attaining the state of equilibrium. Hence, the chemical equilibrium is said to be a dynamic state.

When the reactants react with each other, the cation and ions in the solution break the bonds and form new bonds utilizing this energy to give the products. The reactants react to give the products at a constant rate. Simultaneously, the products turn back to the reactants at the same rate. Thus, attaining the equilibrium state.

At this point, if the system perturbs, the system may reverse and the rate of formation of the reactant and product becomes equal. The rate of formation of products and reactants are equalized. At this stage, the rate of formation of reactants and products is balanced and controlled.

What affects the state in dynamic equilibrium?

The state of dynamic equilibrium is governed by the internal properties of the system and the external condition that may perturb the system.

The force exerting on the object, the external heat, temperature, humidity, specific heat capacity, pressure, chemical composition, emissivity, and potential energy of the system, are different factors that affect the state in dynamic equilibrium.

The system is perturbed even by the slight variations in the surrounding. Upon changing the temperature of the system, the resistivity, and the chemical reaction rate change. By increasing the temperature of the system, the heat is acquired by the particle constituting the system.

By acquiring the additional amount of energy the agility of the particles increases and they start moving randomly. The specific heat of the molecules increases which affects the stable state. The chemical composition, the oxidation state of the molecules, boiling point, imbalance in forces, etc. affects the state in dynamic equilibrium.

What is the difference between static and dynamic equilibrium state?

Static EquilibriumDynamic Equilibrium
A static equilibrium is an irreversible processA dynamic equilibrium is a reversible process.
The rate of reaction giving product is zero.The dynamic equilibrium will lead to the conversion of the reactant to product and products to reactants at an equal rate.
The system at the static equilibrium does not vary but remains constant throughout.The dynamic equilibrium may vary upon a slight change in the system hence there are frequent variations of the system from the dynamic equilibrium.
The net force on the static equilibrium system is zero.There are forces of attraction and repulsive acting on the molecules thus breaking bonds and forming new bonds in the dynamic equilibrium state of the system.
The static equilibrium state is mostly seen in the case of the mechanical system.The dynamic system is seen in the case of the chemical reaction mostly.
The static equilibrium can occur in both the closed system as well as the open system.The dynamic equilibrium occurs only in the closed system.
The rate of forward and the reverse reaction is zero.The rate of forward and reverse reaction is constant.
At this state, no reaction takes place between the reactants and products.At a dynamic equilibrium state, there is a continuous reaction between the reactant and the product.

An example of dynamic equilibrium state

An example of the dynamic equilibrium is the concentration of carbon dioxide and the ocean. The oceanic water traps the molecules of carbon dioxide and hence is a storehouse of this gas. This gas is released back into the air during the evaporation of water.

Another example is the balance of the dynamic equilibrium of carbon in the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide acquired from the plant is returned back to the atmosphere on combustion of the wood. Eventually balancing the quantity of the carbon dioxide in the air.

state of dynamic equilibrium
Combustion of wood; Image Credit: pixabay

During combustion, the carbon reacts with the oxygen from the air, giving away the carbon dioxide. It is a reversible change. The carbon is separated from the oxygen and stored, while in reversible reaction carbon reacts with oxygen and releases carbon dioxide into the air. Thus, maintaining the balance, and dynamic equilibrium of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The dynamic equilibrium takes place while walking balancing the momentum of the body. While walking, the right hand is put forward while taking forward the left hand and vice versa. The force acting in the forward direction is balanced by the force exerted in the backward direction.


The state of dynamic equilibrium is achieved by maintaining the constant rate of formation of the products and the reactants, and by balancing the force equal in magnitude and in opposite direction. It is a reversible process and is maintained at a constant rate thus attaining the equilibrium condition.

Read more about Dynamic Equilibrium In Molecules.


Hi, I’m Akshita Mapari. I have done M.Sc. in Physics. I have worked on projects like Numerical modeling of winds and waves during cyclone, Physics of toys and mechanized thrill machines in amusement park based on Classical Mechanics. I have pursued a course on Arduino and have accomplished some mini projects on Arduino UNO. I always like to explore new zones in the field of science. I personally believe that learning is more enthusiastic when learnt with creativity. Apart from this, I like to read, travel, strumming on guitar, identifying rocks and strata, photography and playing chess. Connect me on LinkedIn -

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