Speed governor | Its Complete Tutorial | 10+ Important Questions

Speed governor |  Its Complete Tutorial | 10+ Important Questions

Speed Governor

Contents : Speed governor

What is a governor in a car?  

Speed governor | Engine governor

Whenever there is a “variation of load on the engine”, there will be change in the engine’s speed. For the maintaining the speed of an engine up to definite limit, a speed governor is utilized. There is a variation in the speed of the engine over a no of rotations because of engine’s load variations. The operation of a speed governor is more or less intermittent and these are critical for all types of engine because its adjustability on the supply of fuel as per requirement. A speed governor is also known as a governor or sped limiter.

Speed governor |  Its Complete Tutorial | 10+ Important Questions
Engine governor
Image credit : GlobbetAshton Frost engine governorCC BY-SA 3.0

Governor symbol

Symbol of Speed governor
Symbol of Speed governor

What are the two main components of a governor system?

Types of Governor

The Governor categorized in two types.

  • Centrifugal Governor
  • Inertia Governor

Centrifugal Governor

Centrifugal governor consists of a pair of governor balls attached to the arms, which are supported by the spindles as shown in the figure. This whole system is mounted on the shaft; this shaft is linked to the engine of the shaft thru a bevel gear mechanism. Under this assembly, a free to slide sleeve is attached to the shaft. A bell crank lever is connected to the sleeve. This lever connects the throttle valve and sleeve.

The activity of the governor be subject to the speed variation. The variations in the bell crank lever give the motion to the sleeve and eventually to the spindle and ball. The governor’s action is produced by the centrifugal effect of the masses of the balls.

When the speed of the engine increase, the balls intend to rotate with higher radius from the centered shaft position, this caused the sleeve to slide in the upward way on the spindle and these variations of the spindle will result in the closing action of the throttle-valve up to the mandatory limit thru the bell-crank lever mechanism. When the speed declines, the balls will rotate at a lesser radius, so the throttle valve opens accordingly.

It is a more common type of governor.

Type of Centrifugal Governors

The centrifugal governor is further classified as follows:

Speed governor |  Its Complete Tutorial | 10+ Important Questions

Inertia Governor

Inertia governor is based on the ‘Principle of Inertia of Matter’.

For Inertia Governor, more force acts with the centrifugal forces on the balls, whose position are decided by the angular acceleration and de-acceleration of the spindle in addition to the centrifugal force acts on the ball.

In the inertia type of governor, appropriate linkages and spring used for opening and closing the throttle valve according to the changes in the position of the ball.

In an inertia governor, when the acceleration or deceleration of an engine is very low, the additional inertia force practically becomes zero. In that case, the inertia governor becomes a centrifugal governor.

The inertia governor’s response is faster than that of the centrifugal governor.

Engine Governor

The throttle valve of an engine is operated by the governor called engine governor using a mechanism explained earlier.

Sensitiveness of a Governor

The movement of the sleeve essential for the minimal change in the speed of an engine is the measure of sensitiveness of a governor.

A governor’s sensitiveness is described as the ratio of the change in-between the highest and least speed to the mean equilibrium speed.

Thus,

Sensitiveness=\frac{range of speed}{mean speed} =\frac{N2-N1}{N} =\frac{2(N2-N1)}{N}

Where,

N=mean speed

N1=minimum speed corresponding to full load conditions

N2=maximum speed corresponding to no-load conditions

Turbine Governor

A turbine governor is a component of a turbine control system that controls rotational speeds according to loading conditions.

A turbine governor provides on-line and start-up control for the generator, which drives the turbine.

Steam Turbine Governing

In a steam turbine, there is an inconsistent flow of steam. A steam turbine governing is a procedure of maintaining a constant rotation speed by controlling the steam turbine’s flow rate to the steam turbine.

Elevator Governor | Over-speed Governor

When the speed of an elevator crosses predetermined speed limits, a mechanism acts to control the system known as over speed governor.

A speed governor located in the elevator is a component of the safety system of the governor.

The position of the speed governor in the elevator is determined by the However, in many cases, it is installed in the machine room of the elevator.

Air Vane Governor

An air vane governor is a pneumatic type of governor.

In this system, airflow is used to regulate the throttle opening. This air vane of the governor is made up of plastic or metal. This governor also consists of the flywheel.

Speed Limiter for Car

A speed governor is used as a speed limiter for cars’ engines. It regulates the fuel supply of the car with varying load.

There are three types of the governor which are being used in automobiles:

·       Mechanical Governor

·       Hydraulic Governor

·       Pneumatic Governor

 

Woodward Governor

Wood ward governor is a well-known manufacturing company of governors.

Governor Switch | Governor Gear

Governor Switch, Governor Gear are parts of an evolved form of a speed governor.

Question and Answers related to Governor

What are the two main components of a governor system? 

The two main components of a governor are mechanical arrangement and hydraulic unit.

How does a mechanical governor work?

Centrifugal governor consists of a pair of governor balls attached to the arms, which are supported by the spindles as shown in the figure. This whole assembly is mounted on the shaft; this shaft is connected to the engine of the shaft using bevel gear. Under this assembly, a free to slide sleeve is attached to the shaft via a bell-cranks. This lever connects the throttle valve and sleeve.

As we already know, governor’s action is dependent on the speed variations. The changes in the bell crank lever give the motion to the sleeve and ultimately to the spindle and balls. The governor’s action is produced by the centrifugal effect of the masses of the balls.

During the engine’s speed increment, the ball will intend to rotate at a higher- radii from shaft’s position and caused the sleeve to sliding in the upward direction and this movement of the spindle consequences in the closing of the throttle-valves and if speed declines, these balls will rotate with less radii, so the throttle valve controlled accordingly.

What are the three types of governors?

There are three types of the governor which are being used in automobiles:

  • Mechanical Governor
  • Hydraulic Governor
  • Pneumatic Governor

What is Governor Sensitivity?     

Governor sensitivity is known as the sensitiveness of a governor.

The movement of the sleeve for the minimal change in the speed of an engine is the measure of sensitiveness of a governor.

Sensitiveness=\frac{range of speed}{mean speed} =\frac{N2-N1}{N} =\frac{2(N2-N1)}{N}

Where,

N=mean speed

N1=minimum speed corresponding to full load conditions

N2=maximum speed corresponding to no-load condition

Which governor is more sensitive?     

Proell governor is known as the most sensitive governor in the centrifugal type of governors.

Whereas Porter governor is more sensitive than Watt governor.

What are the applications of a governor?

  1. A speed governor is used as a speed limiter for cars’ engines. It regulates the fuel supply of the car with varying load.
  2. A governor is used in elevators. When the speed of an elevator crosses predetermined speed limits, a mechanism acts to control the system known as over speed governor.
  3. A speed governor is used in different types of turbines. A turbine governor provides on-line and start-up control for the generator, which drives the turbine.

Which governor is used in cars? | What is a governor in a car?

A speed governor is used as a speed limiter for the engines of cars. It regulates the fuel supply of the car with varying load.

There are three types of the governor which are being used in automobiles:

  1. Mechanical Governor
  2. Hydraulic Governor
  3. Pneumatic Governor

What is the range of governor?

The variance between the maximum and minimum speed of a governor is known as a governor’s range.

What is the meaning of speed governor?

Whenever there is a variation in the load on the engine, there is a variation in the speed of an engine and to maintain the engine’s speed at stated limit, a speed governor is employed.

Can you remove a speed governor?

Yes. A speed governor is inbuilt for a car from the company, but it can be removed if we want.

Is speed governor compulsory?

Yes. It has been made compulsory in many countries to have a speed governor.

How does a speed governor work?

The throttle valve of an engine is operated by the governor, when the load on the engine shaft increases, it’s speed will decline except the fuel supply is increased by the throttle valve opening. Similarly, if the load on the engine shaft declines, its speed will increase unless the fuel supply is reduced by closing the throttle-valve appropriately to slowdown engine’s to actual speed.

What is a Hartnell governor?

A Hartnell governor is a centrifugal type of governor in which it is loaded with a spring.  Additional spring is used to apply an extra force to the spring.

Where is Hartnell governor used?      

A Hartnell governor is used in regulating the speed of the engine.

Which lever is used in Hartnell governor?  

The lever used in Hartnell governor is a bell crank lever.

What are the types of speed governor?

Governors are broadly classified into two types.

  1. Centrifugal Governor.
  2. Inertia Governor.

For more mechanical related articles click here

About Rutuja Jadhav

Speed governor |  Its Complete Tutorial | 10+ Important QuestionsI am Rutuja Jadhav , A curious geek & currently pursuing B.Tech. in Mechanical Engineering. Having a very good understanding in Robotics & 3D Modelling .Used to take part in various Student Competitions mostly in the Automobile field.An active member of SAE(Society of Automotive Engineers).
My articles are aimed towards simplification of basic concepts of Mechanical Engineering.
I love to design new products, Not even a single product could be materialized without Mechanical Engineering. Starting from Idea, Design, Modelling, Analysis and Finally Manufacturing, We always need mechanical engineering to build all types materialistic products.
So, I try my bit to simplify this knowledge and deliver it to the readers.
Let's connect through LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/rutuja-j-592a85124/.

x
About Lambdageeks

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

en English
X