Silver Chloride(AgCl) Properties (25 Facts You Should Know)

Silver chloride is an electrolytic salt of silver that can be used in different electrodes. Let us explore silver chloride in detail.

Silver chloride is a unique salt that is formed by the reaction of weak base silver hydroxide and strong acid hydrochloric acid. The solubility product of silver chloride is very high so it is more soluble in water and due to the lower ionic product it does not precipitate.

All the 4d electrons of silver are involved so it has higher ionic potential and the effective nuclear charge will be high. Now we discuss some basic properties of silver chloride like melting or boiling point, oxidation state, reaction tendency, density, and viscosity in the following part of the article.

1. Silver chloride IUPAC name

IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) gives the name for AgCl as silver(I) chloride.

2. Silver chloride chemical formula

AgCl is the chemical formulation of silver chloride where silver is known as Ag and chloride is Cl.

3.  Silver chloride CAS number

7783-90-6 is stand for the CAS (up to the ten-digit numeric value given by Chemical Abstract Service) number of silver chloride.

4.  Silver chloride Chem Spider ID

22967 is the Chem Spider ID (given by the Royal Society of Chemistry) for silver chloride.

5. Silver chloride chemical classification

Silver chloride can be classified into the following categories,

  • Silver chloride is an inorganic ionic salt
  • Silver chloride is an electrolyte
  • Silver chloride is a reference electrode

6. Silver chloride molar mass

Silver chloride has 143.32 g/mol as molar mass where the atomic mass of silver is 107.86 and the atomic mass of chlorine is 35.453.

7. Silver chloride color

Silver chloride is white in color at normal temperature but upon heating, on kept in the open air, it turns brown due to the dissociation of molecules to form silver and chlorine gas.

8. Silver chloride viscosity

Solid silver chloride has 0 viscosity as the property is only for fluid exerting the frictional force.

9. Silver chloride molar density

The molar density of the solid silver chloride is 55.56 g/cm3 .

10. Silver chloride melting point

The temperature required for the melting of solid silver chloride is 4550C or 728K.

11. Silver chloride boiling point

The boiling temperature for silver chloride is 15470C or 1820K because it has a strong van der Waal attraction force.

12. Silver chloride state at room temperature

Silver chloride exists in solid crystalline form at room temperature.

13. Silver chloride ionic bond

There will be an ionic bond present between silver and chlorine in the silver chloride molecule because silver has a higher number of d electrons and its ionic potential will be high and it can easily polarize the anion and silver give one electron and chlorine accept that electron.

AgCl Ionic Bonding

14. Silver chloride ionic radius

The ionic radius of silver and chlorine are 126 pm and 181 pm respectively.

15. Silver chloride electron configurations

Electronic configurations are the arrangement of electrons by their number and position. Let us discuss the electronic configuration for AgCl.

  • The electronic configuration of silver is [Kr]4d1051
  • The electronic configuration of Chlorine is [Ne]3s23p5
  • The electronic configuration of a molecule or complex is unpredictable.
  • So, here we predict the electronic configuration of the constituent atoms.

16. Silver chloride oxidation state

The oxidation state of the silver in silver chloride is +1 because it exists as Ag+ and the oxidation state of the Chlorine is -1 because it exists as chloride or Cl.

17. Silver chloride acidity/alkaline

Silver chloride is neither acidic nor alkaline rather it is an ionic salt that is acidic in nature due to being formed by strong acid.

18. Is silver chloride odorless?

Silver chloride is an odorless molecule, it has no characteristics of smell.

19. Is silver chloride paramagnetic?

Paramagnetism is a property depending on the availability of the number of unpaired electrons. Let us see whether silver chloride is paramagnetic or not.

Silver chloride is diamagnetic instead of paramagnetic as the Silver is +1 oxidation state so it donates one electron and it has filled 4d orbital so there is no unpaired electron present. The magnetic susceptibility value of silver chloride is −49.0·10−6 cm3/mol.

20. Silver chloride hydrates

There is no hydrated part present with the lattice crystal of the molecule as the solubility of silver chloride is very high.

21. Silver chloride crystal structure

The crystal structure of the silver chloride is halite in the lattice form and adopted a face-centered cubic structure where each silver ion is surrounded by the six chloride ligands in the octahedron moiety and for this reason, the lattice structure is very strong for silver chloride.

22. Silver chloride polarity and conductivity

Silver chloride is polar and conductive in nature and the supporting reasons are,

  • The molecule can be ionized in the Ag+ and Cl. Both ions are highly conductive and have higher mobility
  • Silver chloride is rapidly soluble in water to get dissociation into ions.
  • The dipole moment of AgCl flows from Cl to Ag+.
  • Due to the linear geometry, there is no way of cancellation of dipole-moment in AgCl.
Silver Chloride
Dipole-Moment

23. Silver chloride reaction with acid

There is no such reaction found in silver chloride with an acidic molecule as it can be ionized easily so it is soluble in acid. But sometimes it reacts with nitric acid and gives silver nitrate by the displacement reaction.

HNO3 + AgCl = AgNO3 + HCl

24. Silver chloride reaction with base

Silver chloride can react with lewis bases like ammonia to form a complex silver diammonium ion along with chloride ion.

AgCl + NH3 = [Ag(NH3)2]+ Cl

Ammonia serves as a soft ligand in this reaction and the molecule has crystal field stabilization.

25. Silver chloride reaction with oxide

Silver nitrate can react with metallic oxide or superoxide to form tri or tetra-coordinated molecules adopting trigonal planar or tetrahedral geometry.

AgCl + As2O3 = AgAsO3 + AsCl

26. Silver chloride reaction with metal

Silver chloride does not react with other metals due to a higher reduction potential than other transition metal element. Sometimes it reacts with another metallic complex of copper and platinum.

Conclusion

Silver chloride is a borderline metal molecule, where the silver has filled the d orbital and for this reason, it is inert to many reactions. It is mainly used in the reference electrode and also used in redox electrodes where potassium chloride is taken for the electrolyte. The standard electrode reduction potential for silver chloride is .230 and if we add a trace amount of bromide then the value goes negative.

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