Carbon containing compounds attached with hydrogen atom with a single bond are saturated hydrocarbons. Following are the various saturated hydrocarbon examples.
Following is the list of saturated hydrocarbons examples:
- Methane (CH4)
- Ethane (C2H6)
- Propane (C3H8)
- Butane (C4H10)
- Pentane (C5H12)
- Hexane (C6H14)
- Heptane or Septane (C7H16)
- Octane / Isooctane (C8H18)
- Nonane (C9H20)
- Decane (C10H22)
- Dodecane (C12H26)
- Pentadecane (C15H32)
- Hexadecane (C16H34)
- Eicosane (C20H42)
- Triacontane (C30H62)
- Tetracontane (C40H82)
- Pentacontane (C50H102)
- Hexacontane (C60H122)
- Heptacontane (C70H142)
- Octacontane (C80H162)
- Nonacontane (C90H182)
- Hectane (C100H202)
- Cyclopropane (C3H6)
- Cyclobutane (C4H8)
- Cyclopentane (C5H10)
- Cyclohexane (C6H12)
- Cycloheptane (C7H14)
- Cyclooctane (C8H16)
- Cyclononane (C9H18)
- Cyclodecane (C10H20)
- Dodecahedrane (C20H20)
There are two types of saturates hydrocarbons i.e. alkanes and cycloalkanes. Alkanes have general formula of CnH2n+2. Alkanes are generally not reacted with oxidizing and reducing agents, acids and bases and other organic compounds. It can form both straight chain and branch chain alkanes and show various isomers.
Methane contains 1 C and 4 H atoms and it is commonly known as Marsh gas / methyl hydride. It is gas having molecular formula CH4 is the smallest.
Ethane is the flammable gas which is non-toxic in nature and having no odour. It has 2 C and 6 H and only forms strait chains and can also write as CH3 – CH3.
Prpoane is a gas used in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). It is also form only straight chains written as CH3 – CH2 – CH3.
Butane (CH3 – (CH2)2 – CH3) is also a gas used in LPG’s which gives clear flame. It can form both straight and branched chains and written as follows.
Pentane basically occurs in liquid form at room temperature. It has long chain of 5 C atoms represented as CH3 – (CH2)3 – CH3. It is present in both straight chain and branched chains and shows the following isomers.
Six carbon chain containing hydrocarbon with single bonds comes under alkanes is hexane (C6H14). It can also be written as CH3 – (CH2)4 – CH3. It has 5 isomers, 1 straight chain and 4 branched chains. These hexane structural isomers get mixed and used commonly as organic solvents.
Heptane or Septane (C7H16)
Septane (CH3 – (CH2)5 – CH3) is an alkane contains 7 carbon chain hydrocarbons. It has 9 structural isomers. It has 98.4 degree boiling point.
Octane / Isooctane (C8H18)
Alkanes containing long carbon containing chain with eight C atoms are octane or isooctane. Straight chain octane occurs in gasoline. It can be denoted as CH3 – (CH2)6 – CH3.
Nine carbon chain containing hydrocarbon or alkane is named as nonane. It can be written as CH3 – (CH2)7 – CH3, having 35 structural isomers and has 150.8 degree boiling point.
Decane contains long chain of ten carbon atoms and having 174.1 degree boiling point. It has at least 75 structural isomers and generally denoted as CH3 – (CH2)8 – CH3.
Long chain of twelve carbon atom containing hydrocarbon named as Dodecane. It can denoted as CH3 – (CH2)10 – CH3.
Fifteen carbon atoms containing chain of hydrocarbons are Pentadecane. It can be written as CH3 – (CH2)13 – CH3.
The saturated hydrocarbon having sixteen carbon atoms in its longest chain is Hexadecane. It is occurs in fuel especially in diesel and present in straight form in it.
Twenty carbon atom containing hydrocarbon is eicosane. The following hydrocarbons after eicosane i.e. with 21 C atom chain is heneicosane, C22 docosane, C23 tricosane and so on.
Carbon chain with thirty carbon atoms is known as Tricontane. The further carbon chain of tricontane has named as methyltricontane (C31H64), dotricontane (C32H66), tritricontane (C33H68) and so on.
Tetracontane is alkane contains longest chain of 40 carbon atoms. It is further chains of tetracontane followed with names hen (C41), do (C42), tri (C43), tetra (C44), penta (C45) with tetracontane.
Longest chain of Fifty carbon atoms containing alkanes are pentacontane. It is followed with the same sequence of its family alkane like henpentacontane (C51), dopentacontane (C52), tripentacontane (C53), etc.
Hexacontane is alkane which contains longest chain of sixty carbon atoms. It has similar family of alkane having C61H124 (henhexacontane), C62H126 (dohexacontane), etc.
Alkanes having carbon chain with seventy hydrocarbons in its structure is Heptacontane. It has equivalent alkanes below it with sequence of C71, C72, C73, and so on.
Eighty carbon atom chain containing hydrocarbon or alkane containing single bonds is Octacontane. It is followed by henoctacontane, dooctancontane, trioctacontane, etc.
Alkanes with longest chain of 90 carbon atoms are Nonacontane. It has followed with Henonacontane (C91), dononacontane (C92), etc.
Hundred carbon chain containing hydrocarbons or alkanes are known to be Hectane. It has following hydrocarbon chains like Henhectane (C101), Dohectane (C102), Trihectane (C103), etc.
The alkanes containing carbon chain which get joined in a cyclic manner to form a ring are known as cycloalkanes. It has two less hydrogen atoms than straight chain alkanes and thus has general formula CnH2n. Due to presence of single bond within carbon atoms no free rotation occurs in cycloalkane structures.
Cyclic alkane with three carbon atoms attached in a cyclic shape forming triangle is cyclopropane. It has same bond angle of 60 degree as all three C atoms lie in equal plane.
Four carbon atom chain containing cycloalkanes forming ring within four C atoms having square shape is cyclobutane. It has 90 degree bond angle within all four carbon atoms of cyclobutane.
Ring form of alkane with five carbon atom is cyclopentane. It has a pentagonal shape and having interior bond angle of 108 degree as all the C atoms of cyclopentane are not lies in similar plane.
The cycloalkanes containing six carbon chain ring forma a hexagon is cyclohexane. It has 120 degree bond angle within its structure. Cyclohexane can show two conformations i.e. boat conformation and chair conformation. These both conformations of cyclohexane has 109.5 degree bond angle.
Seven carbon atom chain containing hydrocarbon rings of alkanes is cycloheptane. It has 109.5 degree bond angle within all atoms in its structure.
Cycloalkanes with eight chain of carbon atoms forming a ring structure is cyclooctane.
Cyclononane having cyclic ring constitutes with nine carbon atoms in its structure.
Ten carbon chains containing cyclic ring hydrocarbon or cycloalkane is known as cyclodecane.
Dodecahedrane consists of 20 carbon atoms with 20 hydrogen atoms in its structure which forms a polyhedron contain 12 faces.
Saturated hydrocarbons are single bond containing hydrocarbons. There are two types of saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes. Alkanes can form straight and branch chain hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes having 2 less hydrogen atoms than alkanes and form ring structures as the carbon atoms get joined with each other.