Samarium is a rare chemical element usually found in minerals like cerite, monazite, and samarskite. Let us study some important facts about Samarium.
The Samarium is almost hard and appears to be silver in color. The oxidation process (in the air) for this element is observed to be quite slow. It adopts a rhombohedral crystalline structure.
Samarium finds application in making of permanent magnets as it has the ability to withstand high temperatures (above 700 °C); it does not lose their magnetic properties easily. We’ll discuss some important properties like electronegativity, magnetism, radius, etc.
The chemical element Samarium has the symbol Sm in the periodic table.
Samarium group in periodic table
The element Samarium in the periodic table belongs to lanthanides. The elements in this group are observed to withstand quite high temperatures as they possess high melting and boiling points.
Samarium period in periodic table
Samarium belongs to period 6 of the periodic table of elements. The rows in the periodic table are referred to as periods.
Samarium block in periodic table
Samarium is placed in the f block of elements of the periodic table. The division criteria in a block are based on valence electrons in the elements.
Samarium atomic number
The atomic number of the Samarium element is 62 since there are 62 protons in the Sm atom.
Samarium atomic weight
The atomic weight of the Samarium element is 150.36 g/mol. Atomic weight can be efficiently calculated by taking into consideration the mass of elements (average) to a standard value.
Samarium Electronegativity according to Pauling
The electronegativity of Samarium, according to Pauling, is 1.17.
Samarium atomic density
The atomic density of the Samarium element is 7.52g/cm3 (room temperature).
Samarium melting point
The melting point of the Samarium element is 1072°C. When a substance changes from a solid phase to a liquid phase on, the application of heat is referred to as the melting point.
Samarium boiling point
The boiling point of the Samarium element is 1900°C.
Samarium Vanderwaals radius
The Vanderwaals radius for the Samarium element is 229 pm.
Samarium covalent radius
The covalent radius for the Samarium element is 198 pm.
The term isotope is used to describe substances having similar number of protons but there is a difference in the number of neutrons. Let us study the isotopes of Samarium.
Samarium is seen to have 5 stable isotopes (144Sm, 149Sm, 150Sm, 152Sm, 154Sm). Also, the isotopes 147Sm and 148Sm are seen to have a very long half-life. Some isotopes of Samarium are discussed below:
- 149Sm – The abundance of this isotope is 13.82% and is quite stable. This isotope is also used as a neutron absorber.
- 151Sm – The half-life for this isotope is 88.8 years. The molecular weight of this isotope is 150.91 g/mol.
- 153Sm – The half-life for this isotope is 46.3 hours. The observed molecular weight for the isotope is 152.92 g/mol.
Samarium electronic shell
The shells are found around the nucleus of an atom containing a specific number of electrons are referred to as an electronic shells. Let us check for Samarium.
The element Samarium has 6 electronic shells. The order of arrangement of electrons in the shells is in the manner: 2 in the first shell, 8 in the next one, 18, 24, 8 and 2 in the last one.
Samarium energy of first ionisation
The first ionisation energy for the Samarium element is 544.5 kJ/mol. This is the amount of energy that will be required to remove the electron (outermost), which is loosely bonding in the structure.
Samarium energy of second ionisation
The second ionisation energy for the Samarium element is 1070 kJ/mol. This is the amount of energy that will be required to withdraw the second loosely bonding electron from the structure ( wherein the outermost electron is already removed).
Samarium energy of third ionisation
The third ionisation energy for the Samarium element is 2260 kJ/mol.
Samarium oxidation states
The observed oxidation states for the element Samarium are 0, +1, +2, and +3.
Samarium electron configurations
Electronic configuration gives the exact arrangement of electrons in the atomic orbitals. Let us see for Samarium.
The electronic configuration for the Samarium element is [Xe] 4f6 6s2. The correct arrangement of electrons in the atomic orbitals is shown by the electronic configuration.
Samarium CAS number
The CAS number for the Samarium element is 7440-19-9.
Samarium ChemSpider ID
The ChemSpider ID for the element Samarium is 22391.
Samarium allotropic forms
An element can exist in different forms, which is referred to as the allotropic form of an element. Let us discuss for the element Samarium.
Samarium element has 3 allotropic forms:
- The alpha phase of the Samarium element is seen to have a rhombohedral structure.
- The beta phase is observed to have a hexagonal closed-packed structure.
- The allotrope gamma phase is seen to adopt a bcc structure.
Samarium chemical classification
The chemical classification of Samarium:
- In the category of lanthanides, the Samarium element is seen to be the most volatile one.
- Samarium is observed to be quite hard ( just like Zinc element).
- The atomic radius of Samarium is equal to 180 pm.
Samarium state at room temperature
At room temperature, the Samarium element is solid.
Is Samarium paramagnetic?
Materials magnetizing on exposure to a magnetic field and possessing unpaired electrons are referred to as paramagnetic substances. Let us find for Sm.
Samarium element is paramagnetic. The reason for magnetism is that it can get magnetized when it comes in contact with any magnetic field as it contains unpaired electrons. Thus the last orbital is not fully occupied and when external magnetic field is applied it gets attracted towards magnetic filled.
Samarium is placed in f block element and is seen to adopt a rhombohedral crystalline structure. In hardness it is almost similar to Zinc and gives quite high melting and boiling points.