Ruthenium Electron Configuration: 9 Facts You Should Know!

There are 118 identified elements in the periodic table. Facts about a specific element are discussed in this article.

Ruthenium electronic configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d7 5s1. Ruthenium(Ru) is a partly inert transition metal present in group eight of the table, having a mass number of 101.07. Identified for its silver metallic coating, Ru mainly consists of seven natural isotopes.

Let us go through the interesting electron density and distribution of electrons in Ruthenium in this article.

How to write Ruthenium Electron Configuration?

The number of electrons in Ruthenium is equal to the atomic number which is 44. Following are certain rules to attain the electronic structure:

Step 1: Find the energy order of the orbitals

Following the Aufbau principle, all the electron-filled atomic orbitals are arranged in a specific energy order sequence so that (n+l) values increase where n is the prinicipal quantum number and l is the Azimuthal quantum number. For Ruthenium, the energy order is: 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d.

Step 2: Following the rule of electron filling in each orbital

An orbital can have only two with varied spins, as per Pauli’s exclusion principle. For instance, s-orbital holds two electrons, p orbitals hold net six electrons and d-orbital holds net ten electrons.

Step 3: Arranging the electrons in all the orbitals

As electrons get paired, each orbital of a sub-shell must be previously filled, as per Hund’s rule. The resultant electronic configuration is: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d7 5s1.

Ruthenium Electron Configuration Diagram

Ru has the following orbital characteristics:

  • Total orbitals of all sub-levels- 24
  • Total energy levels- 10
Sub-shellNumber of Orbitals
s1
p3
d5
Orbital Information
Energy Series of Orbitals

Ruthenium Electron Configuration Notation

Ru37 Electronic Configuration- [Kr36] 4d7 5s1.

Ru can also be defined with a smaller notation putting in context the nearest Nobel gas notation. There are 36 electrons in Kr which is followed by the rest 8 electrons.

Ruthenium Unabbreviated Electron Configuration

The unabbreviated format of Ruthenium electron configuration is:

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d7 5s1

Ground State Ruthenium Electron Configuration

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz2 3s2 3px2 3py2 3pz2 4s2 3dxy2 3dyz2 3dxz2 3d2x2-y2 3dz22 4px2 4py2 4pz2 4dxy2 4dyz2 4dxz1 4d1x2-y2 4dz21 5s1. The electrons do not face any disturbance, to stay inside the respective orbitals. The electron configuration stands as:

  • 1s orbital is filled first having least energy followed by 2s and p orbital series till 3p.
  • Despite having lower n=3, 4s gets filled before 3d due to lower energy by (n+l) formula.
  • As the prinicipal quantum number, n, increase in higher p and d-orbitals, the electron count ends at 5s orbital.
  • 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz2 3s2 3px2 3py2 3pz2 4s2 3dxy2 3dyz2 3dxz2 3d2x2-y2 3dz22 4px2 4py2 4pz2 4dxy2 4dyz2 4dxz1 4d1x2-y2 4dz21 5s1

Excited State of Ruthenium Electron Configuration

Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4dxy1 4dyz2 4dxz1 4d1x2-y2 4dz21 5s2.As we excite the Ru atom, the electron undergoes a transition from lower energy to higher energy orbital. Other possible configuration is as follows:

  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4dxy2 4dyz1 4dxz1 4d1x2-y2 4dz21 5s2

Ground State of Ruthenium Orbital Diagram

The electrons are arranged in the ground state of Ru following the classical rules of filling according to the increasing order of energies.

Energy Order of Sets of Orbitals

Ruthenium 3+ Electron Configuration

Ru+3 configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d5

In the Ru+3 state, no electrons are present in the 5s orbital. Moreover, two paired electrons are removed, one each from each orbital of 4d.

Ruthenium 2+ Electron Configuration

Ru+3 configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d6

In the Ru2+ state, one electron is removed from the 5s orbital(only one electron was present) while another electron is removed from one of the paired electrons of the 4d orbital.

Conclusion

Since Ruthenium belongs to the Platinum group, its higher-order oxides and chlorides are prevalent. The electronic structure explains the half-filled stability of the orbitals due to which electrons get filled in the 4d orbital, leaving an unpaired electron in the 5s orbital.

Scroll to Top