Rough And Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: 7 Complete Facts


Two main types of endoplasmic reticulum are present in eukaryotic cells such as rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Let us know more about them.

In rough endoplasmic reticulum, several ribosome molecules remain attached to its surface, that is why it is called rough. Whereas smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have any ribosomes attached to it, that is why it remains smooth. 

Let us discuss where RER and SER are located, major differences between the two, functions and many other related facts in this article.

Where is rough endoplasmic reticulum located?

Both endoplasmic reticula are found in eukaryotic cells but in different regions. Let us know where rough endoplasmic reticulum is located in cells.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is exclusively found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is located in the internal cytosolic region, near nucleus. It mostly forms cisterna and tubular structures that remain connected with the nuclear membrane of the cell.

Where is smooth endoplasmic reticulum located?

Now we know where rough endoplasmic reticulum is located. Let us explore where smooth endoplasmic reticulum is located in cells.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells just like other organelles in the cell. It is present in the peripheral region of the cell near plasma membrane. It mostly forms tubular and vesicular structures that remain attached to the plasma membrane of the cell.

Differences between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum possess several similarities and differences between them. Let us find out major differences between the two below.

Differences between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum are:

Characteristics Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Presence of ribosome molecules Rough endoplasmic reticulum has several ribosomal units attached to its membrane, that is why its surface is rough.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosome molecules attached to its membrane, thus its surface is smooth.
Structure formedRough endoplasmic reticulum mostly forms Cisternae and tubular structures.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum mostly forms tubular and vesicular structures.
Location within cellRough endoplasmic reticulum is found in the central or inner part of the eukaryotic cell, near the nucleus. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in the peripheral part of eukaryotic cells, near the plasma membrane.
Serve as a part of endomembrane system Rough endoplasmic reticulum is present near the nucleus of cell and remains connected with the nuclear membrane of the cells.As a part of the endomembrane system of a cell, smooth endoplasmic reticulum remains connected with the plasma membrane of the cell.
Role in metabolism Because of the presence of ribosome molecules, rough endoplasmic reticulum takes part in several enzyme and protein synthesis processes.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays significant role in glycogen, lipids and steroid synthesis.
Other functions It helps in formation of lysosomes in eukaryotic cells, which helps in breakdown of certain cell molecules within it.It helps in the formation of Spherosomes or Oleosomes which actively takes part in synthesis of lipid and store them for future use.
Cooperation with Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum provides protein and lipid to the Golgi apparatus.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum provides Vesicle to the Golgi apparatus.
Development Rough endoplasmic reticulum is developed from the nuclear membrane.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is probably developed from the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Presence of ribophorinsRough endoplasmic reticulum has ribophorins such as ribophorin l and ribophorin ll in its membrane surface, which facilitates protein synthesis by the joining of two ribosomal subunits.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribophorins in its structure.
Found in Rough endoplasmic reticulum are mostly found in glandular and protein producing eukaryotic cells.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum are mostly found in muscle cells and nerve cells.
Differences between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Rough endoplasmic reticulum function

Rough endoplasmic reticulum possesses ribosomes in it. Hence, its functionality is slightly different from smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Let us know the function of RER in detail.

The primary function of RER is protein synthesis with the help of ribosome molecules. After protein synthesis, it involves in protein folding and protein sorting. In this process, the functional proteins are transported to its destination.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum function

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosome molecules attached to it. That is why they possess different kinds of functionalities than RERs. Let us discuss more. 

SER is mainly associated with lipid metabolism – different types of lipid molecules such as phospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones are synthesized within it. It is also known for its calcium ion storage properties. It releases calcium ions in the nervous and muscular systems when needed.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum diagram

Rough endoplasmic reticulum is a part of the endomembrane system of cell, located near the nucleus of cell. Let us know about its structure by a suitable diagram.

Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum diagram, Image credit: Wikimedia commons

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum diagram

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is a part of endomembrane system of the cell, located near the peripheral region of cell. Let us know more about its structure by a suitable diagram.

Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum diagram. Image credit: Wikimedia commons

Conclusion

As a whole, we can say that rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays a significant role in the membrane transport system of eukaryotic cells. Here we have discussed rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum along with the 7 most related facts. Hope this article on rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum is helpful to you. 

Piyali Das

Hello, I am Piyali Das, pursuing my Post Graduation in Zoology from Calcutta University. I am very passionate on Academic Article writing. My aim is to explain complex things in simple way through my writings for the readers. We can connect through LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/piyali-das-484019216 .

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