Plant Chromosomes Structure: 7 Facts You Should Know


Plant chromosome structure contains all the genetic information found in pairs. Let us see some more interesting facts about plant chromosome structure.

Plant chromosome structure is thread-like, found in the nucleus of the cell. A chromosome comprises a single molecule of protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is passed down from parent to offspring and contains specific instructions that make each species unique. 

Plant chromosomes develop through fission, fusion, replication, and insertion, allowing for size and number evolution.

Let us discuss if plant chromosomes are circular or linear, why they are linear, how they are arranged and many more questions in this article.

Are plant chromosomes circular or linear?

Chromosomes or DNA are found in linear or circular structures. Circular DNA is only present in prokaryotic cells. Let us see if plant chromosomes are circular or linear.

Plant chromosomes are linear in structure, just like other eukaryotes. A plant cell has nuclei surrounded by a membrane and plant chromosomes are present in linear form rather than circular. The DNA found in linear chromosomes in the cell nucleus is tightly wrapped around a significant protein called histone.

Why plant chromosomes are linear? 

The factors that led to the evolution of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are not well understood by scientists. Let us know the reason behind this.

Plant chromosomes are linear instructure because it is suitable for the development of cell. Large organisms need linear or straight chromosomes to promote the transcription and replication of large genomes.

The potential selective pressure that supports linear chromosomes is related to the size of the genome of organisms. 

What does a chromosome look like in a plant?

Chromosomes can not be seen through a human’s naked eyes. A microscopic view helps us to understand the clear structure of plant chromosomes. Let us know more.

Chromosomes have complex thread-like structures, spindles with two chromatids connected with centromeres that occur in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Plant chromosome size can be 1 to 8cm long, and the shape of a chromosome is understood by the centromere’s position along its length. 

  • Telocentric chromosome: One end of the chromosome  
  • Acrocentric chromosome:  Near the end.
  • Metacentric chromosome: Near the centre. 
  • The physical centre and end are called sub-metacentric.
Plant Chromosomes structure
Plant chromosomes structure from Wikipedia

What colour are chromosomes in plant cells?

Each organelle of a plant cell can be seen and classified by its shape and occurrence through the microscope. Let us see what colour are chromosomes in plant cells.

Chromosomes appear grey in color in plant cells. Scientists have given the name, chromosome (chroma means “colour” and soma means “body” in Greek) because their cell structures or bodies are intensely coloured by some brightly coloured dyes used in research.

How are plant chromosomes arranged?

The plant kingdom which starts with unicellular algae to multiple cellular trees, and organisms are getting more complex and arranged. Let us see how plant chromosomes are arranged.

Chromosomes are composed of a DNA-protein complex called chromatin, which is organised into subunits called nucleosomes. The way eukaryotes compress and place chromatin not only fits large amounts of DNA in small spaces but also helps regulate gene expression.

Is plant chromosome double-stranded?

Chromosomes are made of two chromatids, these two strands swindled up with each other inside the nucleus. Let us see if plant chromosome is double-stranded.

Plant chromosome structure is double-stranded. A chromosome contains double-stranded DNA combined with the phosphate bond and nitrogenous base.

What is the difference between plant and animal chromosome structures?

Chromosomes play a significant role in the growth and development of plant cells. Let us see the difference between plant and animal chromosome structures.

Chromosomes are present in both plant and animal cells inside their nucleus, but few characteristics are different, which are as follows:

FactorsPlant cellAnimal cell
NumberLess number of chromosomes are found in plant cell.More number of chromosomes are found in animal cell.
Type of genePlant chromosomes have photosynthetic genes.Animal cells have locomotory genes in the majority.
Cell divisionIn plants, cell division occurs by cell plate.In animals, there is a process called cytokinesis for cell division.
Difference between plant and animal chromosome structures

Conclusion

A plant chromosome is a linear double-stranded structure that carries genetic material, DNA, and RNA, and is responsible for growth and reproduction. Chromosomes are tangled, which protects DNA from getting damaged. In the field of cytogenetics, chromosomes and their function helps us understand the DNA sequences and structures of chromosomes and chromatin. The plant genome in the number of chromosomes widely differs among the species. 

Kirti Singh

Hello, my name is Kriti Singh from Agra. I have completed a post-graduation degree in Biotechnology and a B.Ed. degree. Biology is my favorite subject since childhood and I never felt tired or bored with this particular subject. As I have an inquisitive personality, always been curious and fascinated to know more about life and nature. Let's connect through LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/kirti-singh-33a20196

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