Phosphorus is a chemical element present in the periodic table. Here, let us discuss some special features of the Phosphorous element.
Phosphorous is a vital element for all living beings as it is present in the DNA and RNA in the form of phosphate sugar. There are 3 types of phosphorus with 3 different colors i.e., red, white (or yellow), and black (or violet) phosphorus. All these phosphorus has different melting points and also they are lustrous.
Let us discuss the details about the atomic number, electronegativity, melting point, boiling point, and various chemical properties of phosphorus and some facts about it.
The chemical symbolic notation of the Phosphorus element is ‘P’.
Phosphorus group in the periodic table
The Phosphorus element has occupied the place in the 15th group of the periodic table. It is present below nitrogen and above arsenic elements.
Phosphorus period in the periodic table
The Phosphorus element has occupied the place in 3rd period of the periodic table. It is present after silicon and before sulfur elements.
Phosphorus block in the periodic table
The Phosphorus element comes under the p-block elements of the periodic table.
Phosphorus atomic number
The Phosphorus element has the atomic number 15, i.e., there is a total of 15 protons in its nucleus.
Phosphorus Atomic Weight
The Phosphorus element has an atomic weight of 30.973762 u.
Phosphorus Electronegativity according to Pauling
According to Pauling’s scale, the Phosphorus atom has an electronegativity value of 2.19.
Phosphorus atomic Density
The different types of Phosphorus elements have the atomic density as follows:
- White phosphorus: 1.823 g/cm3
- Red phosphorus: ≈2.2–2.34 g/cm3
- Violet phosphorus: 2.36 g/cm3
- Black phosphorus: 2.69 g/cm3
Phosphorus melting point
The Phosphorus element has the melting point value of 44.15 °C (317.3 K, 111.47°F).
Phosphorus boiling point
The Phosphorus element gets boiled at a temperature of 280.5°C (553.7 K, 536.9°F).
Phosphorus Vanderwaals radius
The Phosphorus element has the VanderWaals radius of 180 pm.
Phosphorus ionic/covalent radius
The covalent and ionic radius of phosphorus element is listed below:
- The Phosphorus element has a covalent radius of 111 pm.
- The phosphorus element has an ionic radius of 58 pm at +3 oxidation state and 52 at +5 oxidation state.
The atoms of the same element have different neutron numbers but similar proton numbers are called isotopes. Let us discuss the isotopes of the Phosphorus element.
The naturally occurring Phosphorus 15P has only one stable isotope and various unstable isotopes. The isotopes of phosphorus is given below.
|Isotopes of Phosphorus element||Characteristics|
|Phosphorus 31 – 31P||Most stable isotope of the Phosphorus element|
|Phosphorus 33 – 33P||Longest live isotope of Phosphorus element with a half-life period of 24.34 days|
|Phosphorus 32 – 32P||Isotope of Phosphorus with a half-life value of 14.268 days|
|Phosphorus 25 – 25P||Isotope of Phosphorus with a half-life value of shorter than 30 nanoseconds|
Phosphorus electronic shell
The presence of electrons in the orbitals or shells of atoms in a sequential manner is called the electronic shell. The electronic shell of the phosphorus element is discussed below.
The Phosphorus element has the electronic shell of 2, 8, and 5.
Phosphorus energy of first ionization
The Phosphorus metal has the first ionization energy value of 1011.812 kJ mol‑1.
Phosphorus energy of second ionization
The Phosphorus metal has the second ionization energy value of 1907.467 kJ mol‑1.
Phosphorus energy of third ionization
Phosphorus metal has the third ionization energy value of 2914.118 kJ mol‑1.
Phosphorus oxidation states
The Phosphorus atom can show the oxidation states of −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, and +5, but the -3, +3, and -5 are the most common oxidation states of phosphorus.
Phosphorus electron configurations
The Phosphorus atom has an electronic configuration as below:
- [Ne] 3s² 3p³
Phosphorus CAS number
The Phosphorus atom has the CAS number 7723-14-0.
Phosphorus ChemSpider ID
The Phosphorus atom has the ChemSpider ID 4575369.
Phosphorus allotropic forms
The atoms of similar elements that show different structural forms are called the allotropes of that element. There are three main allotropes of phosphorus element given below:
- White P is a white waxy translucent solid and glows in dark conditions.
- Red P is iron-grey lustrous color but does not glow in the dark and is insoluble in water.
- Black P is 2 types of black P i.e., α and, ß black P, and formed by heating red P at different temperatures.
Phosphorus chemical classification
The Phosphorus element gets classified as a more reactive non-metallic element.
Phosphorus state at room temperature
The Phosphorus element shows the solid (transparent waxy solid) state at room temperature.
Is Phosphorus paramagnetic?
The presence of paired electrons shows the diamagnetic nature of an element. Let us see if Phosphorus element is diamagnetic in nature.
Phosphorus is diamagnetic in nature and not paramagnetic. It occurs in P4 form thus it shows diamagnetic nature even if it has three unpaired electrons. On applying an external magnetic field it get repel each other and shows a diamagnetic character.
Phosphorous is symbolized as P and has the atomic number 15. It has an electronegativity of 2.91 and belongs to the 15th group and third periods of the periodic table. It has common oxidation states of -3, +3, and +5. It is diamagnetic in nature.
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