O3 Lewis Structure: Drawings, Hybridization, Shape, Charges, Pair, And Detailed Facts


This article illustrates the o3 lewis structure, How to draw the lewis structure, hybridization, shapes, charges, and some other properties of the o3 lewis structure.

Allotropes of oxygen, such as ozone (o3), contain three oxygen atoms. For the formation of the o3 lewis structure, we need a total of 18 valence electrons that are distributed such that there is the formation of one single bond and a double bond takes place.

The highly reactive gas ozone (o3) naturally exists in our atmosphere.

How to draw lewis structure for O3?

The Lewis structure is used to predict how many and what kind of bonds can form around an atom. Knowing the Lewis structure of any given molecule or compound is crucial to understanding how atoms and molecules work. 

The structure allows us to comprehend the fundamental structure, as well as the electrons involved in bond formation and the charges on a given atom.

Draw the o3 lewis structure using different steps:

Step 1: calculate the total no. of Valence electron in the o3 lewis structure:

To begin, calculate the number of valence electrons in the o3 lewis structure outer shell. Thus the valence electron in the oxygen having electronic configuration is 1s2,2s2,2p4 is six.

∴ the sum of total valence electron =6+6+6=18.

Step 2: Draw the skeleton of the given molecule and find the central atom:

After knowing the valence electron we should draw the rough skeleton of the molecule. In the Ozone molecule, there are 3 oxygen atoms present, so any oxygen is placed in the center and the remaining two are adjacent to it.

Step 3: Assign the valence electron:

Thus total valence electrons are 18 in the o3 lewis structure molecule, assign them in between the three atoms of o3 with the help of dots. Complete the octet of each atom that is around the central atom.

Valence electron

Step 5: Perform the following octet for the central atom:

From the above we can see that central oxygen does not complete its octet, so for completing the octet of the central atom we will convert lone pairs into multiple bonds.

Thus in the final structure ozone shows one single bond with one double bond.

Octet for the central atom

O3 lewis structure shape

Ozone(o3) is a triatomic molecule with 116.8° bond angles and a bent electronic geometry and trigonal planar molecular geometry. In an o3 lewis structure, the central oxygen atom has only one pair of unbonded electrons.

Due to the distortion in the o3 lewis structure, the O3 molecule shape is frequently said to be bent.

O3 lewis structure formal charges

Ozone is an unstable blue diamagnetic gas with a pungent odor. O3 lewis structure has two major resonance structures, each of which contributes equally to the hybrid structure of the molecule.

When an electron is redistributed between two atoms and the charge is occupied by these atoms for the bonds, a formal charge is created.

The formal charge =No. of valence electrons – no of lone pair electrons –   ½ no. of bonded pair electrons.

The formal charge on O: 6-2-½ (6)= 1, thus the formal charge on o3 lewis structure is +1 on the central oxygen atomSimilarly, two adjacent oxygen atoms carry (-½ ) partial negative charge, and central oxygen carries +1 formal charge as shown in the figure below.

O3 lewis structure lone pairs

We can begin marking lone pairs on atoms after determining the center atom and sketching the O3 molecule. Keep in mind that there are nine electron pairs in total.

An oxygen atom can only have eight electrons in its last shell. We can mark electron pairs on oxygen atoms based on these facts.

O3 lone pairs

One oxygen atom will keep three lone pairs in this step, while the other two oxygen atoms will keep two lone pairs. As a result, all remaining lone pairs have been identified.

O3 hybridization

Hybridization refers to joining two or more atomic levels with the same or different energies to form a new orbital. Ozone has only one central oxygen atom with eight electrons in its outermost shell. 

Central oxygen atom’s hybridization becomes sp2 because there are electrons in one s orbital and two p orbitals.

1s22s22p4 is the electronic configuration of the Oxygen atom (Z=8).

The 2s orbital has two electrons, while 2px and 2py have the remaining six. 1s and 2p are the total numbers of orbitals. As a result, the O3 molecule’s hybridization is sp2.

O3 lewis structure resonance

Except for the placement of the electrons, these Lewis structures are identical.

Resonance structures, or resonance forms, are equivalent to Lewis structures.

As a Lewis structure, ozone should be described as follows:

O3 lewis structure resonance

Ozone, or O3, has two major resonance structures, each of which contributes equally to the molecule’s overall hybrid structure. This means that an average of the two Lewis structures describes the ozone molecule. 

From a stability standpoint, these structures are identical because each has a positive and negative formal charge on two oxygen atoms.

Two major resonance structures

Ozone has a unique structure that combines the ozone molecule’s two major resonance structures. The three oxygen atoms’ double bond will have a significant single bond character. Other resonance structures for ozone can be drawn, but none will be significant contributors to the hybrid structure.

O3 lewis structure octet rule

The octet rule is applied to molecules when each atom becomes stable by gaining eight electrons in its outermost shell. So, in the case of the o3 lewis structure, the sideways oxygen follows the octet rule but the central atom has only six electrons.

So, to fulfill the condition of the octet, We should move 2 electrons from one of the sideways oxygen atoms and place them along with the central oxygen atom. This will show that the molecule has now a double bond and one single bond on the central oxygen atom.

O3 polar or nonpolar

In the theory of atoms and molecules, the dipole moment is the difference between positive and negative charges inside a molecule. The usual values for this value vary in ozone, as there are partial + and – charges inside the molecule’s constituent atoms but only a net positive or negative charge difference.

O3 polar

The ozone molecule is thought to be polar because the lone electron pair produces a net dipole. The typical dipole moment value changes in an ozone molecule, and the molecule contains partial positive and negative charges.

Net dipole moment

This means that it has a polar nature and is pushed downward by the dipole moments. The o3 lewis structure is polar.

O3 lewis structure bond angle

A double bond exists between the central oxygen atom and one of the lateral oxygen atoms in the O3 Lewis structure. In the O3 Lewis structure, a double bond exists between the central oxygen atom and one of the lateral oxygen atoms.

O3 lewis structure bond angle

Because there is only one pair of lone electrons in this case, the repulsive force is lower than when there are two pairs of bonding electrons. There are 18 valence electrons and the bond angle is 116.8 degrees.

O3 lewis structure electron geometry

O3 lewis structure has electron geometry is the trigonal planar electron. Ozone consists of three groups of electrons around the central oxygen.

But the molecular geometry is bent.

O3 valence electrons

Ozone is made up of only one element: oxygen. Oxygen is a member of the group and has six electrons in its last shell. The number of electrons in the valence shells of oxygen atoms is now known.

To calculate the total number of valence electrons provided by a given element, multiply the number of electrons in the valance shell by the number of atoms in that element.

The oxygen atom provides 6 x 3 = 18 valence electrons

There are 18 valence electrons in total.

An oxygen atom has six electrons in its valence shell. There are three oxygen atoms in an O3 molecule. As a result, the ozone molecule has a total of 18 valence electrons.

O3 uses

  1. We are protected from the sun’s harmful rays by the ozone layer in the atmosphere. Ozone is used to purify water, deodorize the air, and cure industrial wastes. 
  2. Because it protects living things from UV rays, stratospheric ozone is considered beneficial.
  3. The high concentration of ozone found 15–30 kilometers above the earth’s surface is referred to as the ozone layer. 
  4. By absorbing the sun’s harmful UV-B rays, it protects life on the planet.
  5. Higher stratospheric ozone concentrations are essential for preventing harmful UV-B radiation from reaching the Earth’s surface.

Conclusion:

Allotropes of oxygen, such as ozone (o3), contain three oxygen atoms. One lone pair of electrons exists among the 18 valence electrons in ozone. In addition to being polar and hybridizing with sp2, it also has trigonal planar geometry (bent).

Monika Saini

Hi....I am Monika. I have done Masters in Chemistry. I am a Subject Matter Expert in Chemistry. I would say that I am a very passionate writer. The main goal of my writing is to present new perspectives. I want to discover new things that I can apply to my surroundings. Let's connect through LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/monadbscr171291

Recent Posts