NH2Cl, chloramine, is a monochloro amine compound with a molecular weight of 51.48 g/mol. Let us study more facts about NH2Cl.
NH2Cl is a yellow pungent smelling liquid with low melting and boiling points due to its unstable state. The gaseous state is more stable thermally as compared to liquid state. It is readily soluble in polar solvent than in non-polar solvents. It is formed by reacting a weak base and a strong acid.
The N-Cl bond is readily dissociated using either a strong or weak acids. Let us study in details the shape, angle, polarity, valency, etc. about NH2Cl lewis structure, below.
How to draw NH2Cl lewis structure?
Lewis structure the electronic representation of the skeletal structure of a molecule conveying about the total bond and lone pairs present. Let us construct for NH2Cl.
Counting total valence electrons.
N, Cl and H have ground state electronic configuration as: [He]2s22p3 , [Ne]3s23p5 and 1s1. 5, 7 and 1*2 valence electrons available from N, Cl and 2 H atoms. A total of 14 valence electrons (outermost shell electrons) are available for constructing NH2Cl lewis dot structure.
Choosing central atom
N is chosen as the central atom as it is less electronegative. The least electronegative atom with sufficient valency to accommodate at least 8 electrons or more than that is chosen as the central atom in a lewis dot structure. N has X (electronegativity difference) = 3.04, H has X= 2.2, Cl has X= 3.16.
Formation of bonds
Between each atoms, a pair of electrons are drawn until their valency is complete following octet rule. Each pair of electrons form one bond. Only one single bond is formed between each atoms i.e., between N-H and N-Cl. This gives a total of 3 single bonds with 6 valence electrons consumed.
Assigning the remaining valence electrons
The lone pair of electrons are assigned from the remaining valence electrons. 8 valence electrons that do not participate in bond formation remain as lone pair of electrons. This gives a total of 4 lone pairs that remain localized on N and Cl atoms respectfully.
NH2Cl lewis structure resonance
Resonance is a phenomenon in pi electron system that shows delocalization of pi electron cloud to increase the stability of the system. Let us check if NH2Cl shows resonance.
The NH2Cl lewis structure has no resonance structures. It does not exhibit resonance. The lone pair of electrons remain localized on the respective atoms and the single bond do not involve in any charge separation process. The structure with single covalent bonds is the most stable one.
NH2Cl lewis structure shape
Shape of a molecule is the overall structure adopted depending on the total bonded pairs present in a molecule. Let us discuss in details.
The lewis structure shape of NH2Cl is Trigonal pyramidal. The 3 bonded pairs of electrons arrange themselves in a pyramidal manner to obtain maximum stability and least electron pairs repulsion with maximum distance between bonding and non-bonding pairs of electrons.
The non-bonding pair of electrons do not contribute to the overall shape of a molecule.
Hybridization involves overlap of atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals that participates in hybridization. Let us discuss in details.
NH2Cl has sp3 hybridization with sigma orbitals overlapping with one another. It is calculated using the formula, Hybridization of NH2Cl= (Valence electrons of the central atom + Number of monovalent atoms attached to the central atom + Negative charge on the molecule – Positive charge on the molecule)/2
- Hybridization of NH2Cl= (5+3-0)/2 = 5 = sp3 = tetrahedral geometry.
- The valence orbitals of N are 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz.
- It overlaps with the two 3p orbitals of Cl and 1s orbital of H to form 4 hybrid orbitals.
NH2Cl lewis structure angle
Bond angle is the angle between two adjacent atoms joined to the same central atom. Let us check the discussion below.
The bond angle of NH2Cl is close to 109’5. Since NH2Cl has sp3 hybridization, its angle is close to 109’5 degree. NH2Cl does not have equivalent bonds so the bond angle slightly deviates from the true value. This is so as it depends on bonding and lone electron pairs distance which vary from atom to atom.
NH2Cl lewis structure formal charge
Formal charge is the imaginary electronic charge in a molecule if all the electrons are distributed equally to the atoms. Let us calculate the formal charge of NH2Cl.
Formal charge of NH2Cl is zero calculated using the formula, Formal charge= (Number of valence electrons in a free atom of the element) – (Number of unshared electrons on the atom) – (Number of bonds to the atom)
- Formal charge of N= 5-2-3 = 0
- Formal charge of each H= 1-0-1 = 0
- Formal charge of Cl= 7-6-1 = 0
- Overall net charge of the molecule is zero and it is neutral in nature.
NH2Cl lewis structure octet rule
Octet rule states that each atom tries to accommodate at least 8 electrons in its shell to attain stability with inert shell characters. Let us discuss in details.
NH2Cl lewis structure follows octet rule. N has 8 electrons in its surrounding followed by Cl with 8 electrons as well. H, being electron deficient in nature has a total of 2 electrons in its surrounding and has a He type configuration which is a noble gas.
If a molecule has a complete octet or noble gas type configuration after bonding, it is considered as the most stable configuration.
NH2Cl lewis structure lone pairs
Lone pair of electrons are the non-bonding electrons in hybridization that do not give shape to the molecule. Let us study in details.
NH2Cl lewis structure has a total of 4 lone pairs of electrons. N has 1 lone pair of electron and Cl has 3 lone pairs of electrons. The lone pairs do not migrate over the system from one atom to another to show delocalization. It tries to stay localized on N and Cl atoms.
NH2Cl valence electrons
Valence electrons are the outermost electrons in a shell that are loosely bounded to nuclei and participates in bond formation. Let us calculate valence electrons for NH2Cl.
NH2Cl has a total of 14 valence electrons. N, Cl and H have ground electronic configuration as [He]2s22p3, [Ne]3s23p5 and 1s1. The electrons in 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p and 1s are the outermost electrons that contribute to the total valence electrons.
Is NH2Cl a solid?
Solid is a state of matter in which all the atoms are densely packed together to give a definite shape and volume. Let us discuss in details.
NH2Cl is not a solid. It is liquid in state and the NH2Cl molecules in the system are not densely packed together and gives a somewhat indefinite form.
Is NH2Cl soluble in water?
The solubility rate of a molecule increases with increase in hydration energy. Let us check if NH2Cl is soluble in water or not.
NH2Cl is soluble in water. NH2Cl has a high dielectric constant that allows it to dissociate its ions in water. Water being a very polar solvent with high dielectric constant is suitable as a solvent for NH2Cl. Also, hydration energy should be greater than lattice energy to break down a molecule in to its ions.
Why and how NH2Cl is soluble in water?
NH2Cl is soluble in water as it is polar due to its high dipole moment magnitude. The significant electronegative difference between N and Cl is responsible for developing partial negative and positive charges at the ends of the molecule. This results in partial charge separation.
The partial charge separation can form ion dipole interactions when it is dissolved in water. Also, the hydration energy of NH2Cl is greater than the lattice energy by a few kJ.
Is NH2Cl polar or non-polar?
Non-polar molecules have zero dipole moments and polar has non-zero dipole moment. Let us discuss in details.
NH2Cl is a polar molecule. The dipole moment of N-Cl and N-H and N-lone pairs do not cancel each other. The dipole moment vectors are added in a direction that significantly increase the polarity of the molecule. Polarity depends on charge, electronegative atoms and distance between the atoms.
Why NH2Cl is polar?
NH2CL is polar due to considerable electronegativity difference between N and Cl. The resulting dipole moment vector from N-Cl is greater than N-H and N-lone pairs. This makes the dipole moments to add up without cancelling each other. It forms a non-zero resulting dipole moment.
Is NH2Cl a salt?
Salt is a compound formed by the association of cations and anions. Let us see if NH2Cl is a salt or not.
NH2Cl is a salt. This is formed during the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. The acid used is a strong acid, HCl and base used is a weak strength NH2OH. During neutralization reaction, it forms chloramine and water as the by product. The cation is NH2+ and anion is Cl– in NH2Cl.
Is NH2Cl ionic or covalent?
Ionic compounds have high electronegativity difference and covalent compounds have similar electronegativity difference. Let us discuss in details.
NH2Cl is a covalent compound. The compound has no charge separation and is neutral in nature with net zero electric charge. There is no transfer of electrons taking place among the atoms.
Why and how NH2Cl is covalent?
NH2Cl is covalent as the compound is formed between non-metals with electronegativity difference less than 1.7 between two bonded atoms. NH2Cl involves only sharing of electrons between the atoms without involving electron transfer. This results in a covalent bond, thereby, forming a covalent compound.
Is NH2Cl an acid or base?
An acid releases protons or takes up electrons and a base releases hydroxyl ions or gives up electrons. Let us check if NH2Cl is acid or base.
NH2Cl is neither an acid nor a base. It is rather a neutral salt formed when a strong acid like HCl and weak base like NH2OH undergoes neutralization reaction to release NH2Cl as a salt and water as the byproduct. Even though it has H+ ions but it does not release protons to show its acidic character.
Is NH2Cl an electrolyte?
An electrolyte is a substance made up of cations and anions held together by electrostatic forces of different types of interactions. Let us check if NH2Cl is an electrolyte.
NH2Cl is an electrolyte. This is because the molecule is made up of respective cation NH2+ and anion Cl– . The molecule dissociates to the respective ions when it is dissolved in water and are held together tightly by interionic forces of attraction.
Is NH2Cl a molecular compound?
A molecular compound is the one whose stoichiometry coefficients represents the total number of atoms present in a molecule. Let us discuss in details.
NH2Cl is a molecular compound. This is because it is formed between non-metals bonding through covalent bond. It does not have a high boiling and melting points and there is no net charge separation. As such, it is a covalent molecule with low interatomic forces of attraction.
NH2Cl is a covalent compound with sp3 hybridization and trigonal pyramidal as the shape. It is a polar and molecular molecule.