NaNO3 Lewis Structure& Characteristics: 15 Complete Facts


Soda niter, cubic niter are some of the other names of sodium nitrate. Let us look into NaNO3 and its complete facts.

NaNO3 or sodium nitrate is a crystalline solid made by a metal like sodium and non- metal. Its molecular mass is 84.99 g/mol with boiling point 3800C and melting point 3080C. It is used for making fertilizers, glass, pottery enamels and food preservatives.

Let us see more about NaNO3 like its lewis structure, valence electrons, solubility and so on in the below sections.

How to Draw NaNO3 Lewis Structure?

The simplest way to visualise a molecule’s shape is through its Lewis structure. Let’s examine the procedures for sketching the Lewis structure of NaNO3.

Counting the total valence electrons

In this stage, the total number of valence electrons in the molecule must be calculated. Nitrogen has five, oxygen has six, and sodium has one electron. So in total 5+1+6×3=24 electrons.

Drawing a skeletal structure

The major atom is nitrogen, which is the least electronegative element in this system. Write three oxygen atoms around a nitrogen atom. Make exclusive connections with each of them.

Distributing of electrons

The number of leftover electrons after bonding is 16. Follow its octet rule to distribute these electrons among all the atoms. Except for nitrogen, every atom’s valency is now satisfied.

Bond making in between the atoms

Since all atoms, except nitrogen have satisfying valencies. In order to satisfy nitrogen’s valency, one of the oxygen donates its electron pair. Consequently, nitrogen and oxygen form a double bond. The whole Lewis structure of NaNO3 is formed by the sodium cation joining forces with the nitrate anion.

nano3 lewis structure
Lewis Structure of NaNO3

NaNO3 Lewis Structure Resonance

Resonance is the delocalization of electrons in a molecule. Let’s check to determine if NaNO3 has resonance.

NaNO3 lewis Structure has resonance with two types of resonance structures. The presence of the nitrate ion causes resonance. NaNO3 gains an extra structure thanks to resonance between the oxygen atom and the nitrate ion. NaNO3’s Lewis structure is its resonance structure.

Resonance in NaNO3

NaNO3 Lewis Structure Shape

The molecule’s form reveals the location of its atoms that is the most stable. Let’s investigate NaNO3’s form.

The shape of NaNO3 Lewis structure has a triagonal planar form. The three oxygen atoms in this structure are joined to the nitrogen atom in the middle at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Here, every atom is contained within a single plane. The crystal structure of NaNO3 is rhombohedral and triagonal.

NaNO3 Lewis Structure Formal Charge

The best Lewis structure of a molecule is chosen by considering the atom with formal charge is equal to zero. Let’s investigate the formal charge of NaNO3.

The formal charge of NaNO3 Lewis structure is not zero for all the atoms. Three oxygen molecules, one nitrogen molecule, and sodium are all present here. Even though all the atoms have no zero formal charge NaNO3 is stable.

The formal charge finding equation is

  • Formal charge= valence electrons – lone pair of electrons – No. Of bonds
  • The formal charge of two oxygen atoms = 6-4-2=0
  • The formal charge of the oxygen made single bond with nitrogen=6-1-6=-1
  • The formal charge of nitrogen= 5-4=1
  • The formal charge of sodium=1-0-1=0

NaNO3 Lewis Structure Angle

The angle made by the atoms in a molecule is known as its bond angle. Let’s examine the Lewis structure of NaNO3’s bond angle.

The bond angle of NaNO3 Lewis structure is 1200. All of the atoms of NaNO3 are connected to the core metal through the corners of an equilateral triangle, giving it a triangular planar form. The hybridization in NaNO3 also approves triagonal planar shape to the molecule.

NaNO3 Lewis Structure Octet Rule

The periodic table’s main group elements primarily adhere to the octet rule. Let us study if NaNO3 obeys the octet rule or not.

NaNO3 obeys octet rule. Sodium takes one of its electrons out to complete its octet. Nitrogen has only six electrons in the valence shell after making single bonds with oxygen. Then, one of the oxygen molecules donates its electron pair. Eight electrons make up the whole valence shell of oxygen.

NaNO3 Lewis Structure Lone Pairs

Bond formation does not include a lone pair of electrons. Let us look about the lone pairs in the Lewis structure of NaNO3.

The Lewis structure of NaNO3 has seven lone pairs in total. Each lone pair is connected to an oxygen atom. Two oxygen atoms each have two lone pairs, compared to one oxygen atom’s three. Therefore, there are 7 lone pairs, or a total of 14 electrons.

NaNO3 Valence Electrons

The electrons visible in the outermost shell are valence electrons. Let us count the valence electrons in the Lewis structure of NaNO3.

NaNO3 Lewis structure has 24 valence electrons. Sodium with one, nitrogen with five and oxygen with six. So total 1+5+6×3=24 electrons.

NaNO3 Hybridization

Hybridization is the process of overlapping of atomic orbitals. Let us see more about the hybridization in NaNO3 Lewis structure.

 The Lewis structure of NaNO3 obeys Sp2 hybridization. In reality, sp2 hybridization is followed by the nitrate ion. A sp2 hybrid has developed on the central nitrogen. Three single bonds are created when one of the nitrogen’s s and two of its p orbitals overlap with those of oxygen.

Then, to create a pi bond, the unhybridized orbital in one of the oxygen overlaps sideways with nitrogen.

Is NaNO3 a Solid?

A state of matter with definite volume and shape is called a solid. Let’s check to see if NaNO3 is solid.

NaNO3 is a white colored solid substance which is crystalline in nature.  In NaNO3, all of the particles are tightly and regularly connected, leaving no empty space.

Why and How NaNO3 is a Solid?

NaNO3 is a solid because the attraction between the positive sodium cation and the negative nitrate anion effects in the creation of NaNO3. Since they have a strong linking between each other due to ionic bond they have high melting and boiling point. They are rigid as solid.

Is NaNO3 Soluble in Water?

The solute taken can be solid, liquid or gas but the solvent should be always solid or liquid. Let us know about the solubility of NaNO3.

NaNO3 is soluble in water. It readily dissolves in water to create nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. The temperature affects how soluble it is. As the temperature rises, it dissolves in water with ease. In pyridine, it is hardly soluble, but not in acetone.

Why and How NaNO3 is Soluble in Water?

NaNO3 is soluble in water because it is polar. The ionic compound NaNO3 is created when the sodium cation and nitrate anion interact. Water is likewise a polar compound. Due to the same nature of water and NaNO3 they will get easily dissolved to form a uniform solution.

Is NaNO3 a Molecular Compound?

By sharing electrons among atoms that have no charge, molecular or covalent compounds are created. Let us look whether NaNO3 is molecular or not.

NaNO3 is not a molecular substance. Here the nitrate and sodium ions are charged so they are ionic.

Why and How NaNO3 is not Molecular?

NaNO3 is not molecular because the sodium ion has a positive charge while the nitrate ion has a negative charge in NaNO3. Accordingly, the opposite charges are drawn to one another like ionic compounds do.

Is NaNO3 an Acid or Base?

A solution’s acidity and basicity can be explained using a variety of concepts. Let’s check to see if NaNO3 is an acid or a base.

NaNO3 is neither an acid nor a base. As a result of the neutralisation reaction, it is created it has no acidic and basic nature.

Why and How NaNO3 Not an Acid or Base?

NaNO3 is not an acid or base because it is formed when sodium hydroxide combines with nitric acid. It’s a resultant product of reaction between a strong base and strong acid. So it is a salt.

Is NaNO3 an Electrolyte?

Electrolytes can be strong bases, strong acids, or salts that can transfer electricity when melted or dissolved in water. Let us check to see if NaNO3 is an electrolyte.

NaNO3 is an electrolyte. NaNO3 is found to be a strong electrolyte in nature because it gets completely ionized in water vigorously.

Why and How NaNO3 is an Electrolyte?

NaNO3 is an electrolyte because it dissociates in water and hence conducts electricity readily. Since it is formed from NaOH and HNO3 it is a strong electrolyte.

Is NaNO3 is a Salt?

An acid and a base react to produce salt, a neutral material. Let us find out if NaNO3 is a salt or not.

NaNO3 is a salt. It forms as a result of the neutralisation reaction between NaOH and HNO3. A salt and water are created when a strong base like NaOH and a strong acid like HNO3 mix.When these two combines the hydroxyl ion of base combines with proton of acid to make NaNO3 and water.

Is NaNO3 is Polar or Non Polar?

Polar molecules are always ionic in nature. Let us see whether NaNO3 is polar or not.

NaNO3 is a polar compound. Because being an ionic compound it exhibits polar characteristics within them. The nature of all ionic compounds is polar.

Why and How is NaNO3 polar?

NaNO3 is polar because it dissociate into sodium and nitrate ions in water. The atoms in this situation have very different electronegativity values. It is therefore a polar molecule. Additionally, atoms are not oriented in a symmetrical manner.

Conclusion

NaNO3 is a chemical substance which is deliquescent in nature. It provides nitrate ions in good quantities. It is soluble in ammonia and hydrazine in addition to water and used in various fields.

More Lewis Structures:
H2SO4 Lewis Structure
HNO2 Lewis Structure

Aparna Dev

Hi... I am Aparna Dev, a chemistry Postgraduate with a good understanding of chemistry concepts. I am working in Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited Kollam with experience in the development of electrocatalysts as a part of post graduate thesis. Let's connect through LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/aparna-dev-76a8751b9

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