NaHSO4 Structure & Characteristics (13 Complete Facts)

NaHSO4 is the chemical formula of Sodium bisulphide. Here, in this article, we are learning details on NaHSO4 structure.

NaHSO4 structure is composed of metal and non-metal elements. Sodium is a metal atom while hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen are non-metal atoms. Due to the presence of metal and non-metal atoms, it is an ionic moiety. Na+ is a cation in this structure as it donates one electron to the HSO4 group.

The HSO4 is a polyatomic anion and all the atoms in this ion are covalently bonded with each other. At this junction, we are learning and discussing some more details on NaHSO4 valence electrons, lone pair, shape, etc. with various other facts about NaHSO4 structure.

How to draw NaHSO4 structure?

NaHSO4 does not show a specific crystal structure, it has a simple ionic structure but presents in white crystalline powder form. Let us discuss the molecular structure of NaHSO4.

NaHSO4 structure contains a positively charged cation i.e. Na+ ion. This Na+ ion is attached to the polyatomic anion i.e. HSO4 ion. Both the Na+ cation and HSO4 anion held together due to electrostatic force of attraction between the and form a strong ionic bond.

Below we are discussing the details to draw the NaHSO4 structure:

  • Sodium metal acts as an electron donor as it lost its one valence electron and generates a positive charge on it.
  • HSO4 group acts as an electron acceptor as it gains one electron from Na metal and generates a negative charge on it.
  • The bisulfate (HSO4) polyatomic anion has a central S atom attached with 2 O atoms.
  • Two O atoms have double bonds between S and O atoms (S = O), and two O atoms have single covalent bonds between S and O atoms (S – O).
  • The Na+ ion is attached by having an ionic bond with one O atom and a single covalent S – O bond.
  • The H atoms are attached by having a covalent bond with other O atoms that have a single covalent S – O bond.
NaHSO4 structure

NaHSO4 valence electrons

The outer shell electrons of an atom that can donate or accept by other atoms or molecules are the valence electrons. We are discussing here the NaHSO4 valence electrons.

The Na and H atoms have 1 electron as both of them come under the 1st group in the periodic table. The sulfur and oxygen atoms have 6 valence electrons due to their presence in the 16th group. We have to sum up all the valence electrons of Na, H, S, and O atoms to know the net valence electrons on NaHSO4.

The NaHSO4 valence electrons calculation is given in the below steps.

  • The valence electrons on Na atom of NaHSO4 is = 01 x 01 (Na) = 01
  • The valence electrons on H atom of NaHSO4 is = 01 x 01 (H) = 01
  • The valence electrons on S atoms of NaHSO4 is = 06 x 01 (S) = 06
  • The valence electrons on O atoms of NaHSO4 is = 06 x 04 (O) = 24
  • The valence electrons on NaHSO4 molecule is = 1 (Na) + 1 (H) + 6 (S) + 24 (O) = 32
  • The overall or net electron pairs on NaHSO4 is evaluated by dividing its valence electrons by 2 = 32 / 2 = 16
  • Therefore, the NaHSO4 compound has a net of 32 valence electrons and has electron pairs of 16.

NaHSO4 structure lone pairs

The net excess of unshared electrons that remains on any molecule after bonding is called lone pair electrons. Just see below the detailed explanation of NaHSO4 lone pair electrons.

The NaHSO4 structure contains six lone pairs of electrons. It contains 32 valence electrons. 16 electrons are bonding pair electrons as they form covalent bonds between S, O, and H atoms while 2 electrons are making ionic bonds. 12 electrons are being unshared on all 4 O atoms.

NaHSO4 structure lone pair electrons are calculated in the below steps:

  • Lone pair electrons on NaHSO4 is = Valence electrons of NaHSO4  (V. E) – Number of bonds
  • Na atom of NaHSO4 contains lone pair electrons is = 1 (V. E) – 1 bond = 0
  • O atoms with single S – O bonds have lone pairs in NaHSO4 is = 6 (V. E) – 2 bonds = 4
  • O atoms with double S = O bonds have lone pairs in NaHSO4 is = 6 (V. E) – 2 bonds = 4
  • S atom of NaHSO4 contains lone pair electrons is = 6 (V. E) – 6 bonds = 0
  • H atom of NaHSO4 contains lone pair electrons is = 1 (V. E) – 1 bond = 0
  • Therefore, the NaHSO4 structure has a total of 6 lone pair electrons, 2 on singly bonded O atom and 1 on doubly bonded atoms each.

NaHSO4 structure formal charge

The minimum charge creates on any atom, ion, or molecule due to the loss or gain of the electron is a formal charge. Here, we are discussing on NaHSO4 structure formal charge.

Formal charge of NaHSO4 structure is = (valence electrons – non-bonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons)

The NaHSO4 structure formal charge calculation is explained below given table.

Atoms of
NaHSO4 structure
Valence electrons
on Na, H, S, and O
Non – bonding electrons
on Na, H, S, and O
Bonding electrons
on Na, H, S, and O
The formal charge on
Na, H, S, and O
Sodium (Na) atom010000( 1 – 0 – 0 / 2 ) = + 1
Hydrogen (H) atom010002( 1 – 0 – 2 / 2 ) = 0
Sulfur (S) atom060012( 6 – 0 – 12 / 2 ) = 0
Oxygen (O) atoms with a double bond060404( 6 – 4 – 4 / 2 ) = 0
Oxygen (O) atoms with O –H single bond060404( 6 – 4 – 4 / 2 ) = 0
Oxygen (O) atoms with a gain of an electron from Na060602( 6 – 6 – 2 / 2 ) = – 1
The formal charge on NaHSO4 structure, Na = + 1, H = 0, S = 0, O = 0, O = 0, O = – 1

NaHSO4 structure shape

Let us discuss some details facts about the NaHSO4 structure shape.

The NaHSO4 structure shape is tetrahedral. The tetrahedral shape of NaHSO4 is due to the tetrahedral shape of the HSO4 ion. The centrally placed S atom of the HSO4 ion is joined with 4 bonded O atoms.

That is arranged at the corner places of a regular tetrahedron and produces a tetrahedral shape and geometry of the whole NaHSO4 structure.

NaHSO4 hybridization

The atoms or molecule undergoes mixing of atomic orbitals and produces a new hybrid orbital is hybridization. Here we are discussing the hybridization of the NaHSO4 compound.

The NaHSO4 compound has sp3 hybridization. Its central sulfur atoms have steric number 4. There is the coinciding of one ‘s’ and three ‘p’ orbitals of the centrally placed S atom that form an ‘sp3’ hybrid orbital with corresponding energy. Also, its tetrahedral geometry confirms that it is sp3 hybridized.

NaHSO4 structure angle

The immediate bonds between two atoms in a chemical compound are considered as a bond angle. Let us discuss in detail the bond angle between the NaHSO4 structures.

The NaHSO4 structure has a 109.5 degree bond angle. According to VSEPR theory, the molecular structures with a central atom having 4 bonding atoms with zero lone pair electrons show tetrahedral shape and geometry. Thus it follows the AX4 generic formula and has a 109.5 degree O – S – O bond angle.

NaHSO4 solubility

The efficiency of a solute to dissolve into a liquid solvent is called its solubility. Let us have a deep look at the solubility of the NaHSO4 compound.

Below is the list of solvents in which the NaHSO4 is soluble and insoluble.

NaHSO4 is soluble in:

  • Water
  • Ethanol
  • Methanol

NaHSO4 is insoluble in:

  • Ammonia solution

How NaHSO4 is soluble in water?

NaHSO4 is soluble in water because it is a polar ionic compound. It gets ionized into two oppositely charged ions as Na+, and HSO4 ions. This ion gets combined with opposite groups of water molecules i.e. H+ and OH ions. Thus, it can form a hydrogen bond with water due to which it gets soluble in water.

The water solubility reaction of the NaHSO4 compound is given below.

  • Sodium bisulfate + water → Sodium hydroxide + Sulphuric acid
  • NaHSO4 + H2O → NaOH + H2SO4
  • Sodium bisulfate + water → Hydronium ion + Sodium sulfate
  • NaHSO4 + H2O → H3O+ + NaSO4

Is NaHSO4 solid or liquid?

The closely packed atomic arrangement forms solid species and the loose atomic framework in molecule form gaseous or liquid compounds. Let us see whether NaHSO4 is solid or liquid.

NaHSO4 is a solid compound because it has the composition of metal and non-metal ions. It is a hygroscopic shapeless solid anhydrous salt of sulphuric acid formed as a product of an acid-base reaction. As it is an ionic compound it is a crystalline solid compound.

Is NaHSO4 polar or nonpolar?

The polarity of any compound is firmed by its electron division and net dipoles made on the compound. Take a look at a brief description of NaHSO4 polar or non-polar nature.

NaHSO4 is a polar moiety. It is a highly ionic compound due to its high electronegativity difference of 2.51 between Na and O atoms. Thus it already has oppositely charged ions and has a net dipole on the NaHSO4 molecule. Here, the whole electron density is on HSO4 ion.

Is NaHSO4 acidic or basic?

The moieties which donate H+ ions are acidic while those which accept protons are basic in nature. Let us see below the discussion on whether NaHSO4 is acidic or a basic compound.

NaHSO4 is an acidic compound rather it can act as a weak acid. On adding NaHSO4 to water solution it gets dissolved in it and gets dissociated as Na+ and HSO4 ions. The HSO4 ion can further dissociate as H+ and SO4 ions in water.

Thus as NaHSO4 can release proton in water in low concentration it can act as a weak acid.

Is NaHSO4 electrolyte?

The compounds which can conduct electricity on adding to water and ionize to move freely in water are electrolytes. Here, we are discussing on is NaHSO4 is an electrolyte or not.

NaHSO4 is an electrolyte. It can be dissociated into ions when added to water or an aqueous solution and these ions can move freely in the water. Therefore on the application of outer or external current to aqueous NaHSO4 solution it can conduct electricity and behave as an electrolyte.

Is NaHSO4 ionic or covalent?

The electrostatic force of attraction can characterize ionic compounds and sigma bonds characterize covalent compounds. Let us see whether NaHSO4 is ionic or covalent.

NaHSO4 is an ionic compound at room temperature. It contains Na+ and HSO4 ions which are held to each other due to the electrostatic force of attraction between them. Thus it produces a strong ionic bond between the Na+ and HSO4 ions.

It is a weak bond that can break easily and separate the NaHSO4 into two different ions.


NaHSO4 is a shapeless crystalline salt. It contains 32 valence electrons and 6 lone pair electrons. It shows a tetrahedral shape due to HSO4 ion with sp3 hybridization and a 109.5 degree bond angle. It is soluble in water. It is an ionic solid polar acidic electrolytic compound.

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