N2 polar or nonpolar : Why, How, Characteristics, And Detailed Facts.


In this article, we are going to see N2 polar or nonpolar, Why and How, Molecular geometry of N2, Its Characteristics along with Facts in detail.

N2 is a nonpolar molecule. Because Two nitrogen atoms bonded covalently with each other to complete their stable electronic configuration. As both are nitrogen atoms there is no difference in their electronegativity and the net dipole moment becomes zero. The molecular geometry of N2 is linear, with a bond angle of 180°.

Nitrogen is an element of the periodic table which is discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Nitrogen is denoted by N with atomic number 7 in a periodic table. It belongs to group 15 of the periodic table, having 5 valence electrons in its valence shell. It is a non-metal. Nitrogen covers 78% of the earth’s atmosphere as it is found everywhere.

Diatomic molecule : N2

The term diatomic is used when two atoms form a chemical bond between them. The term Homoatomic is used when the bond is formed between two same atoms or elements of the periodic table. In diatomic molecule N2, the chemical bond is formed between two nitrogen atoms.

As we know, the Nitrogen atom has 5 valence electrons in its valence shell. It required only 3 electrons to get a stable electronic configuration. In N2 both nitrogen atoms share three electrons and form three covalent bonds between them. Covalent bond forms when two atoms are stabilized by sharing electrons between the same or different atoms. The remaining two electrons act as a lone pair.

n2 polar or nonpolar
Figure 1: Bonding in N2

Image Credit: sciencephoto

N2 Polar or Nonpolar?

N2 is a nonpolar molecule.

In polar molecules, like HF. The covalent bond is formed between Hydrogen and Fluorine. Being an electronegative element Fluorine can attract electrons towards itself. Due to this electron density shifts to the Fluorine atom. It acquired a partial negative charge.

On the other, hand Hydrogen is less electronegative than the F atom and acquired a partial positive charge. There is a dissimilarity in electronegativity value between two atoms which creates a dipole moment. Hence HF is a polar molecule.

In an N2 molecule, three covalent bonds are formed between two nitrogen atoms. As both are identical atoms they have the same value of electronegativity. Both nitrogen atoms share the same number of electrons and the same electron density. There is a similarity between electronegativity and the net dipole moment becomes zero. It has a linear structure. Hence N2 is a nonpolar molecule.

Read on : 4 non-polar covalent bond examples: Detailed Insights And Facts

Force of attraction

The force of attraction present in a diatomic molecule of nitrogen N2 is the London dispersion force. It is a weak intermolecular force. Also referred to as induce dipole force.

Molecular geometry of N2

The molecular geometry of the molecule can be predicted with the help of the VSEPR, Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory. This theory assumes that the molecule gets the geometry that has minimum repulsion between electrons.

Electrons are negatively charged particles, can act as magnets. They show repulsion between other electrons. Hence electrons are arranged in such a way to get less repulsion with another electron so that molecular strain is also minimized.

In the N2 molecule, both the Nitrogen atoms have a lone pair of electrons, which repealed each other. To reduce the molecular strain and to get stabilization N2 shows linear geometry. The lone pair of electrons are arranged linearly to get less repulsion with an angle of 180° that is a straight line.

Molecular Geometry of N2
Figure 2: Molecular Geometry of N2

Image Credits: study

Electronegativity of N2

The term electronegativity can be defined as the ability of an atom to pull the electrons towards itself. The electronegativity value of nitrogen is approx. 3.04. In a diatomic molecule of nitrogen, two nitrogen atoms bond together. As both are identical atoms, nitrogen atoms, they have the same value of electronegativity. There is a similarity between electronegativity. Both the atoms share a similar electron density and charge. Due to this dipole moment does not form. N2 is a nonpolar molecule.

Characteristics of nonpolar N2

  • In N2 both nitrogen atoms share three electrons and form three covalent bonds between them, two electrons act as a lone pair.
  • N2 is a diatomic and nonpolar molecule.
  • The molecular geometry of N2 is linear structure with an angle of 180°.
  • The electronegativity value of nitrogen is 3.04.
  • There is no difference between electronegativity.
  • Both the atoms share the same electron density.
  • The net dipole moment becomes zero.

Uses

  1. N2 is commonly used in the chemical industry for chemical analysis, sample preparation.
  2. It is also used as a food preservative in the food industry.
  3. It is used in the bulb industry, tire filling, and fire extinguishers.
  4. N2 is used in fertilizers, steel industry.
  5. N2 is used as purging gas and refrigerant.
  6. It is also used in the hospital ventilation system, pharmaceutical industry.

Read on : 15 Coordinate Covalent Bond Examples: Detailed Insight And Facts

Frequently Asked Question:

Question: N2 is polar or nonpolar?

Answer: N2 is a nonpolar.

In an N2 molecule, bonds are formed between two nitrogen atoms. As both are identical atoms they have the same value of electronegativity so there is no difference between electronegativity and the net dipole moment becomes zero, Hence N2 is a nonpolar molecule.

Question: What forces does the N2 have?

Answer: The N2 has the force called,

London dispersion force, also referred to as induce dipole force. It is not a strong intermolecular force.

Question: Does N2 have polar bonds?

Answer: No, N2 does not have polar bonds.

The polar bonds are formed when there is a difference in the electronegativity value of atoms. But in the case of N2, two identical nitrogen atoms bonded together have the same value of electronegativity. Due to this dipole moment does not form. Therefore N2 does not have polar bonds.

Question: What is the molecular geometry of N2?

Answer: N2 has a linear molecular geometry.

In the N2 molecule, both the Nitrogen atoms have a lone pair of electrons, which repealed each other. To reduce the molecular strain and to get stabilization N2 shows linear geometry. The lone pair of electrons are arranged linearly to get less repulsion with an angle of 180°.

Question: What is the order of electronegativity of N2?

Answer: The order of electronegativity,

According to the Pauling scale, the order of electronegativity of N2 is 3.04.

Question: Why N2 is nonpolar?

Answer: N2 is nonpolar because,

As a bond is formed between two nitrogen atoms, there is no difference in their electronegativity and the net dipole moment becomes zero, hence N2 is a nonpolar molecule.

Smruti Bhosale

I am Smruti Bhosale. I am from Mumbai. I have Master's degree in Inorganic chemistry from Guru Nanak Khalsa College, Mumbai. I always have a passion for writing and to inspire as many willing minds through my words. Chemistry is a subject that is used by everyone in their normal lives. I want to explain the subject in the most understandable and simplest way possible. I am a creative, hard working person and passionate about learning new things. I like to read books.

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