N2 Bond Order: 7 Facts Beginners Should Know!

This topic will illustrate the N2 bond order and explain the bond order diagram, How to find bond order in molecular orbital, Mot, Bond order of N2, and Covalent bond in N2 molecule.

Bond order tells us how many electrons are involved in bond formation between two atoms of a molecule. The order of electrons can also tell us how stable a chemical bond is. The difference between a Bonding orbital electron and an Antibonding orbital electron is called the Bond order. This concept was given by Linus Pauling. Example: n2 bond order = 3.

N2 bond order diagram

In General, the bonding in diatomic molecules can be found through the Molecular orbital diagram. This can also help to find the magnetic behavior of the molecule and also the Bond order of the molecule.

Electronic configuration of N: 1s2, 2s2, 2p3

Therefore total electrons in the Diatomic Molecule of N2 =14. N2 Bond order diagram can be drawn through the calculation of total electrons that undergo bonding.

N2 Bond order diagram

How to find N2 bond order?

The following step finds the N2 bond order:

  1. Calculate total electrons that are present in bonding as well as anti-bonding orbitals.
  2. Fill this electron in Molecular orbital.
  3. Then apply the formula to calculate bond order as follow:

Bond order=½ (electrons in Bonding orbital- electrons in Anti-bonding orbital)

Bond Order of N2 Molecule:

Total electron in N2 Molecule =14

No. of an electron in bonding orbital( Nb ) = 10

No. of an electron in Anti-bonding orbital( Na) = 4

Bond order = ½ (10 – 4)

                   = 6/2 = 3

Molecular orbital diagram N2 bond order

Molecular orbital diagrams help us describe molecules’ electronic structures. 

Example of  N2

Electronic configuration of N2 : (σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(π2px)2(π2px)2(σ2pz)2

As we get filled orbitals of (σ2pz)2  there are no unpaired electrons present, so the N2 Molecule is diamagnetic.

n2 bond order
Molecular orbital diagrams N2

Mot of N2 bond order

Main features of MOT :

  1. Atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals.
  2. The molecular orbital is represented as σ /π / δ.
  3. The number of atomic orbitals combined = Number of Molecular orbitals formed.
  4. These Molecular orbitals are of two types: Bonding Molecular orbitals and Anti-bonding molecular orbitals.
  5. Molecular orbital must have the same or same energy and shape combining the same atomic orbitals.

So, in the case of N2, There is a formation of molecular orbitals of sigma and pi with electronic configuration (σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(π2px)2(π2px)2(σ2pz)2, That is formed by combining the atomic orbital of N: 1s2, 2s2, 2p3.

As we get filled orbitals of (σ2pz)2  there are no unpaired electrons present, so the N2 Molecule is diamagnetic.

Bond order of N2 2-

Total electron in N2 2- =7+7+2=16

Molecular orbital E.C of N22-= (σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(π2px)2(π2px)2(σ2pz)2(π*2px)1(π*2px)1

Bond order= ½ (Nb-Na)

Nb=No. of bonding electrons

Na= no.of antibonding electrons

Bond Order= ½ (10-6)


Therefore, bond order of  N2 2- = 2.

Bond order of  N2 2-

Covalent bond in N2 molecule

The atomic number of Nitrogen is 7 so the electronic configuration of nitrogen is 1s2, 2s2, 2p3. Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons in its outermost shell so it will require 3 more electrons to fill its octet configuration. So to complete its octet it will share the electrons with another atom of nitrogen or other elements.

Covalent Bond in N2

A covalent bond is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons, so nitrogen forms a triple bond in its diatomic molecule by sharing electrons and completing its octet.

How many orbitals are singly occupied in N2?

In general, Nitrogen in the form of elements consists of 3-single (2p3 ).

The electronic configuration of N: 1s2, 2s2, and 2p3 occupied orbitals, But if we talk about the molecule of nitrogen it is a diatomic molecule formed by the combination of two nitrogen atoms.

According to the molecular orbital configuration of N2


Mot Shows orbitals are occupied in N2

From the configuration, we can say that there is no orbital present that occupied single electrons, like (σ2pz)2 full-filled orbitals.

Does N2 have a bond order of 3?

Yes, According to the molecular orbital configuration of N2


Bond order is calculated as the given formula below:

Bond order= ½ (Nb-Na)

Bond Order of  N2 =3


We can conclude from the above that the bond order provides important information about N2 molecules and covalent bonding. Nitrogen is an element with 7 electrons in total, with 5 valence electrons in the outermost shell. Its octet is incomplete, so nitrogen shares an electron with other nitrogen atoms to complete it. As a result of the electron sharing, nitrogen forms covalent bonds and N2 becomes a diatomic molecule.

Monika Saini

The main goal of my writing is to present new perspectives. I am an academic content author in Chemistry. I am passionate about and enjoy chemistry. I want to discover new things that I can apply to my surroundings.

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