What is Mobile Computing
Mobile Computing is one of the latest and evolving technologies that allows data transmission in the form voice, images, videos via internet-enabled or rather wireless-enabled devices without physical connection such as computers, IoT devices, etc.
Mobile Computing Components
The significant verticals of components involved in the technology of Mobile Computing or Mobile cloud computing are :
- hardware components
- software component
- Communication layer
The hardware components have different types, such as device components or mobile devices that provide the service of mobility. They can be classified in various segments like smartphones, portable laptops, IoT devices, tablet Pc’s, etc.
What role the hardware components play :
These hardware devices have a mini component called a receptor capable of sensing, receiving, and sending data signals. It is configured to operate in full-duplex mode, ie, sending and receiving signals at the same point of time.
Receptors operate on an existing established wireless network.
The mobile component is the software application program, runs on the mobile hardware component. It is the operating system of the device.
This component ensures portability and mobility and operates on wireless communications and ensures computation that are distributed locations and not attached to any single physical location.
Mobile Communication Layer :
The communication layer represents the underlying infrastructure to ensures seamless and reliable communication. This consists of factors like protocols, services, bandwidth, and portals required to facilitate and support. This layer is based on the radio wave. The signals are carried through the air and communicate with receptors through software components.
The data format is also defined at this layer to ensures collision-free communication between existing systems that provide the same service.
History Of Mobile Computing
During the period of the 1980s:
In 1981: The Osborne Computer Corporation releases the world’s first consumer laptop, The Osborne 1, even though its main limitation was with its display pf 52 characters per line of texts with a small 5″ screen.
Then in 1982: HX-20 from Epson, a portable computer with a small 120 x 32 resolution monochrome LCD screen.
In 1984: The first touchscreen system was developed on the Gavilan SC, which is the first to be marketed with the term ‘laptop.’
In 1989:The Apple Macintosh portable is one of the first to feature an active matrix 640 x 400 screen. This is Apple’s first contribution to the mobile computing movement.
During the period of 1990s:
1990: The Intel announces its 20MHz 386SL processor, and was the first CPU to be explicitly designed with mobile computing in mind, featuring power management features and sleep modes to conserve battery life.
1992: The Windows 3.1.1 is released, and then it becomes the standard operating system for laptops
1993: Personal digital assistant was introduced to the United States by Apple.
1994: IBM’s Thinkpad 755 introduced the CD-ROM drive.
During the period of the 2000s and beyond:
2000: Microsoft unveils a new Operating System, which sparks the beginning of the Pocket PC era.
2002: The Research in Motion introduces the first BlackBerry smartphone.
- The Apple launched its first iPhone, which integrated with the best Web-browsing experience and along with the touchscreen display
Also, that time Google unveils Android.
2009: The Motorola introduces the Droid, which was the first Android-based smartphone.
- Apple launches the iPad, a line of tablets designed, developed, primarily as a platform for audio-visual media, including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content.
- Samsung released the Galaxy Tab, an Android-based tablet to compete with the Apple iPad.
With this path, mobile computing evolved, and there were other inventions and contributions that were done from multiple different organizations from the time it started around 1980 and till now. We still see tremendous development is these areas, and this way, mobile computing will continue its path of revolution.
Mobile Computing – Classification
Mobile computing is widely distributed in different sorts of devices that support mobile computing. It is not only limited to computer or mobile phones, as we saw in the history of Mobile computing
We can classify these mobile computing devices in the below segments :
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
The Personal Digital Assistant ie, PDA, is an extension or a module of the PC, not a substitute, and mainly used as an electronic organizer. This kind of device is capable of sharing data with computer systems through a process called synchronization.
In this process, both the devices will access and communicate with each other to check for any updates in the individual devices by using Bluetooth or infrared connectivity.
With PDA devices, users can access audio clips, video clips, update office documents, and many more services using internet connectivity.
Smartphones are a combination of PDA and Phone with the camera and other features like the execution of multiple programs concurrently.
The majorly used mobile Operating Systems (OS) are Google’s Android, Apple IOS, Nokia Symbion, RIM’s BlackBerry OS, etc.
Tablet and iPads
This kind of device is larger than a mobile phone or a PDA and also integrates touch screen and is operated using touch-sensitive motions on the net. Eg. iPad, Galaxy Tabs, Blackberry Playbooks, etc.
They provide the same functionality as portable computers and also supports mobile computing in a far superior manner and have the huge processing power.
Multiplexing in mobile computing
- Multiplexing is a process where multiple simultaneous digital or analog signals are transmitted across a single data link channel.
It can further be distributed into four types. These are:
- A. Space division multiplexing or SDM
- Time-division multiplexing or TDM
- Frequency division multiplexing or FDM
- Code division multiplexing or CDM
Multiplexing: Frequency division multiplexing (FDM ):
- In Frequency Division multiplexing, the frequency spectrum is diversified into smaller frequency bands. Through FDM, a number of frequency bands can work simultaneously without any time constraint.
Advantages of FDM
- This process is applicable to both analog signals as well as digital signals.
- The simultaneous dimension of the signal transmission feature.
Disadvantages of FDM
- The probability of Bandwidth wastage is high and having Less Flexibility.
Multiplexing: Time Division Multiplexing(TDM)
- The Time Division approach is basically utilizing the whole spectrum for a period.
Advantages of TDM
- The dedicated user at a certain point in time.
- Flexible and less complex architecture.
E.g., Integrated Service for Digital Network telephonic service.
Multiplexing : Code Division Multiplexing(CDM)
- In CDM techniques, a unique code is reserved for every channel so that each of these channels can use the same spectrum simultaneously at the same point in time.
Advantages of CDM
- Highly Efficient.
Disadvantages of CDM
- The data transmission rate is less.
Eg. : Cell Phone Spectrum Technology(2G, 3G, etc.).
Multiplexing: Space Division Multiplexing(SDM)
- Space Division can be considered having both FDM and TDM properties. In SDM, a particular channel will be used against a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time.
Advantages of SDM
- High Data transmission rate with the optimal Use of Frequency & time bands.
Disadvantages of SDM
- High inference losses.
E.g., Global Service For Mobile or GSM Technology.
Mobile Cloud Computing
MCC or Mobile cloud computing utilizes cloud computing to deliver and integrate applications to mobile devices.
Using this Mobile Cloud Computing techniques, the mobile apps can be deployed remotely using speed and flexibility and by using the series of development tools.
Mobile cloud applications can be built or updated, and also the addition of a new feature to the exiting application could be achieved in a quick manner and efficiently using cloud services.
These mobile apps can be delivered to as many different devices having different operating systems, computing tasks, and data storage mechanism.
These apps in this approach require lesser device resources because they are cloud-supported architecture, and also the reliability gets improved due to the fact that the data gets backed up and stored over the cloud, which also, in turn, provides more security and robustness.
Advantages of Mobile Cloud computing :
Mobile applications which are being built based on this cloud architecture acquire the following advantages:
- Data storage capacity and processing power enhancement.
- Extended battery life
- Better synchronization of data due to “store in the cloud, access it from anywhere” methodology.
- Improved reliability and scalability and security due to safe cloud infrastructure and replicas.
- Easy Integration