MGCL2 Lewis Structure: Drawings, Hybridization, Shape, Charges, Pairs

In this article, we study about mgcl2 lewis structure, formal charge, molecular geometry, hybridization and its applications.

  1. How to draw MGCL2 Lewis structure
  2. Formal charge: MgCl2 Lewis Structure
  3. MgCl2 electron and molecular geometry
  4. MGCL2 uses

From brine, we may extract hydrated MgCl2. MgCl2 solutions can also have varying degrees of bitterness, which is depending on the amount of Mg present.

1. How to draw MGCL2 Lewis structure:

The Lewis structure gives the number of valence electrons and bond pair electrons in the MgCl2 molecule. The VSEPR Theory, which asserts that molecules adopt a MgCl2 geometrical structure in which electrons are segregated from one another, may then be used to predict the MgCl2 molecule’s geometry.

Magnesium is the centre atom, which is surrounded on two sides by chlorine atoms. Magnesium contains two outermost valence electrons, or two electrons in its outermost shell, compared to just seven for chlorine. The octet of a chlorine terminal atom is completed by a single electron. As an outcome, two chlorine atoms form covalent bonds with the magnesium atom, leaving no lone pairs on the magnesium atom. No electronic repulsion causes the MgCl2 molecule to assume a linear molecular structure like NO2+ and CS2, that according VSEPR theory. The Mg-Cl bonds of the MgCl2 molecule are placed in a symmetrical manner around the linear geometry, giving the MgCl2 molecule its linear form.

To draw the MgCl2 Lewis structure, follow these steps:

Step-1: Mg atom Lewis Structure

In Periodic table, Magnesium belongs to alkaline earth metal group and chlorine belongs to halogen group. Magnesium has two and chlorine has seven valence electrons in their outermost shells.

Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the MgCl2 molecule.The first step is to figure out how many electrons are in the outermost valence shell of the MgCl2 Lewis structure. The dots on the MgCl2 Lewis diagram indicate it. The central magnesium atom in the MgCl2 molecule is represented as follows:

One core magnesium atom and two chlorine atoms make up the MgCl2 molecule.

As a result, in the MgCl2 Lewis structure (dot structure), the total number of outermost valence shell electrons accessible is 2 + 2 × 7= 16.

Calculation of the MgCl2 molecule’s valence electrons

Choose the atom with the less electronegative value and place it in MgCl2‘s molecular geometry. In this stage, we’ll pick the MgCl2 molecule’s least electronegative value atom to place in the centre of the Lewis structure diagram. In the periodic table, the electronegativity value rises from left to right and falls from top to bottom.

Step-2: Lewis Structure of the Cl Atom

Magnesium is the second atom in the alkaline earth metal group. The halogen family’s second member is chlorine. A magnesium atom has a smaller electronegative value than a chlorine atom.

In MgCl2 Lewis structure diagram, the magnesium atom might be the centre atom. As a consequence, in the MgCl2 Lewis structure, the core magnesium is located in the two-terminal of linear geometry, with both chlorines present.

Step-3: MgCl2 Lewis Structure

Two single bonds connect the MgCl2 molecule’s outside and core centre atoms (Mg-Cl).

Count the number of electrons used in the MgCl2 structure up to the outermost valence shell.  Each magnesium atom is bonded to two chlorine atoms and formed two Mg-Cl bonds.

So, we used four of the 16 valence electrons available for the MgCl2 Lewis structure’s two Mg-Cl bonds. The Mg in MgCl2 molecule contains no lone pair electrons. The additional electron in MgCl2‘s molecular geometry is unnecessary. Assign valence electrons in the Mg-Cl bond pairs starting with the magnesium and 2 chlorine atoms in MgCl2 molecule.

We usually start with valence electrons from the centre magnesium atom in the MgCl2 Lewis structure diagram. Wrap around the bond pair valence electrons of the core magnesium atom first.

To achieve molecule stability, magnesium requires four electrons in its outermost valence shell. Because of the two single bonds, magnesium already shares four electrons. The valence electron is then positioned around the chlorine atom’s seven electrons. The MgCl2 molecule’s two chlorine atoms got a total of 12 valence electrons.

In the MgCl2 lewis structure above, four electrons are placed around the magnesium atom, which is indicated by a dot. With four electrons in its outermost valence shell, the magnesium atom completes the molecular stability of the MgCl2 molecule.

Using the MgCl2 Lewis structure, estimate how many outermost valence shell electrons are utilized. In the MgCl2 lewis structure, four electrons are shown as dots, whereas two single bonds each have two electrons. As a result, the MgCl2 molecule’s outermost valence shell electrons are 4 + 12 = 16.

In the MgCl2 Lewis structure, we’ve utilised 16 of the eight outermost valence shell electrons as of now.

Finish the middle magnesium atom’s stability and add a covalent bond if necessary. Magnesium is the core atom in the MgCl2 Lewis structure, with two single bonds connecting it to the chlorine atoms (Mg-Cl). It already has four electrons due to two single bonds. As a reason, the octet rule applies to chlorine on MgCl2‘s two terminals, and that it has eight electrons around it.

2. Formal charge: MgCl2 Lewis Structure:

The formal charge on the magnesium atom is equal to its real charge in MgCl2 lewis structure.

Through using formula, calculate the formal charge on the central magnesium atom of the MgCl2 molecule:

In the MgCl2 molecule, the formal charge of the magnesium atom is = (V. E (Mg) – L.E (Mg – ½ (B.E))

V.E (Mg) = Valence electron in MgCl2 molecule’s magnesium atom

L.E (Mg) = Lone pairs of electrons in the MgCl2 molecule’s magnesium atom.

Bond pair electron in the Mg atom of the MgCl2 molecule (B.E).

In the MgCl2 molecule, the formal charge on the magnesium atom is determined.

MgCl2 has two valence electrons, four bonding electrons and no lone pair electrons in its magnesium atom.

As the formula above, substitute these values for the magnesium atom.

MgCl2 molecule’s formal charge on magnesium atom = (2-0-(4/2)) = 0

MgCl2’s Lewis structure has a zero formal charge on the core magnesium atom.

3. MgCl2 electron and molecular geometry:

As per the VSEPR theory, MgCl2 possesses a linear molecular geometry. Because the two chlorine atoms around the central atom, magnesium, have two Mg-Cl bonds. In linear geometry, the Cl-Mg-Cl connection creates a 180-degree angle.

There are two Mg-Cl linkages in the linear MgCl2 molecular geometry.

MgCl2 has a linear electron geometry because the magnesium atom has no lone pairs of electrons. MgCl2‘s molecular geometry, on the other hand, is linear.

How to figure out MgCl2‘s molecular shape

Calculating electron lone pairs in the MgCl2 molecule geometry:

Calculate the amount of lone pairs on MgCl2 Lewis structure atom’s core.

Lone pairs of electrons are the main reason of MgCl2 molecule geometry distortion, we need to find out how many there are on the core atom in lewis structure.

Find the lone pair on the central magnesium atom of the MgCl2 molecule through using formula below.

L.P (Mg) = V.E (Mg) – N.A (Mg-Cl)/2

Lone pair on the magnesium atom in the centre = L.P (Mg)

The valence electron of the central magnesium atom = V.E (Mg)

Number of Mg-Cl bonds = N.A (Mg-Cl)

MgCl2 molecule lone pair calculation

Magnesium has two electrons in its outermost valence shell, hence MgCl2 has two Mg-Cl bonds.

As a consequence, L.P (Mg) = (2-2)/2 = 0 is obtained.

The lone pair on the magnesium is zero in the MgCl2 electron geometry. It signifies that the core magnesium atom has no lone pairs.

Calculate the number of MgCl2 Molecular Geometry molecular hybridizations

How do you determine the hybridization of the MgCl2 molecule? MgCl2‘s molecular hybridization number must now be determined.

MgCl2 molecular hybridization has the following formula:

MgCl2 No. Hyb = N.A (Mg-Cl bonds) + L.P (Mg)

MgCl2 No. Hy= the number of MgCl2 hybridizations

N.A. = number of Mg-Cl bonds (Mg-Cl bonds)

Lone pair on the magnesium atom in the centre = L.P (Mg)

MgCl2 molecule hybridization number calculation

Magnesium is a key component of the MgCl2 molecule, as it contains two chlorine atoms and no lone pairs. The number of MgCl2 hybridizations is as follows:

MgCl2 No. Hyb = 2 + 0 = 2

The MgCl2 molecule has two hybridizations. one s orbital and one p orbital combine to give the molecule orbital, this is known as sp hybridization.

Molecular Geometry Notation for MgCl2:

With reference to the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, the molecular geometry of MgCl2 is found as:

MgCl2 has the following AXN notation:

Symbol A shows the central magnesium in the MgCl2 Structure.

Letter X indicates the electron bound pairs to the core atom in Mg-Cl.

The symbol N Denotes the lone pairs of electrons on the core magnesium atom.

MgCl2 molecular geometry notation

The centre atom is magnesium, which seems to have two electron pairs bonded (two Mg-Cl) and no lone pairs. The typical molecular geometry formula for MgCl2 is AX2.

Thus according to VSEPR theory, the molecular geometry and electron geometry of the MgCl2 molecule with an AX2 generic formula will both be linear geometrical forms.

Name of MoleculeMagnesium chloride
Chemical molecular formulaMgCl2
Molecular geometry of MgCl2Linear form
Electron geometry of MgCl2Linear form
Hybridization of MgCl2SP
Bond angle (Cl-Mg-Cl)180º degree
Total Valence electron for MgCl216
The formal charge of MgCl2 on magnesium0
Simple structure of MgCl2 from wikipedia

4. MGCL2 uses:

It’s utilised for ice management in low-temperature road and pavement de-icing. MgCl2 is used to manage dust and to prevent wind erosion.

Anhydrous magnesium chloride is utilised as a precursor to metallic magnesium.

The major precursor to metallic magnesium is anhydrous MgCl2.

Magnesium chloride is one of several compounds used to manage dust, stabilise soil, and reduce wind erosion.

The addition of MgCl2 to conventional catalysts improves their activity.

Magnesium chloride is included in a variety of nutraceutical and medicinal products.


In this article, we have discussed about ionic halide, that is Magnesium Chloride. we have included the steps to draw the Lewis Structure. Other than this, we have talked about the formal charge calculation, geometry and applications of MgCl2.

Madhusudan DN

Hi....I am D N Madhusudan, I have completed my master's in General Chemistry from the University of Mysore. Apart from this, I like to read and listen to Music. Let's connect through LinkedIn:

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