Magnesium Chemical Properties (23 Complete Facts)

Every element exhibits some chemical properties which makes it useful for the people in several ways. Let us discuss the properties of magnesium.

Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal in the periodic table. It appears with a shiny grey colour and no specific odour. Just like other elements in periodic table, this element also hold some physical and chemical properties, which are significant to be known to know the element.

Let us discuss the position of magnesium in the periodic table, its weight, configuration, oxidation state and many other related facts in this article.

Magnesium symbol

Symbols are used for the elements to make their representation in chemical reactions and identification in any other chemical overview. Let us find the symbol of magnesium.

The symbol of Magnesium is Mg. While pronouncing the name of this element “M” and “G”, these 2 letters are pressurised so the symbolic notation of the element is Mg.

magnesium chemical properties
Symbol of Magnesium

Magnesium group in periodic table

Groups are the representation of columns in the periodic table. Let us find in which group magnesium belongs to.

Magnesium exists in group 2 of the periodic table. In accordance with the number of electrons in last electronic shell, the group is divided. Mg has 2 electrons in last shell so that is placed at group 2 in the table.

Magnesium period in periodic table

Periods of the table are the rows that fill the elements with a fixed position. Let us identify in which period Mg belongs to.

Magnesium occupies at period 3 in the table. This is because the third electronic shell is the last shell or valence shell in the element.

Magnesium block in periodic table

Block in the periodic table represents a set of specific elements that have similar vacancies in the valence shell in accordance with orbitals. Let us find the block of Mg.

Mg belongs to s-block of the periodic table. As its last electron of the valence shell lies on s-orbital, Magnesium is placed at s-block.

Magnesium atomic number

Atomic number is the number of proton, electron and neutron (Nuclei) present in an element or the charge held by the nucleus. Let us discuss the atomic number of Mg.

The atomic number of Magnesium is 12. It means it has 12 protons, 12 neutrons and 12 electrons.

Magnesium atomic Weight

The total weight of an atom represents the atomic weight of the element. This is almost same as the total number of neutron and proton in them. Let us identify the same for Mg.

The atomic weight of Mg is 24.312 u. It can be noticed that the additional number of Proton and Neutron is (12+12) = 24, which is nearer to its atomic weight.

Magnesium Electronegativity according to Pauling

Electronegativity refers to the attraction of elements for shared electron by others. This is denoted by X. Let us recognise electronegativity of Magnesium below.

According to the measurement of Pauling scale, it has been identified that the electronegativity of magnesium is 1.31.

Magnesium atomic Density

Atomic density can be defined as the density of atoms per m3 of the elements. Let us represent the atomic density of Mg in per m3.

The atomic density of Magnesium is 1.74 Mg/m3. It means in 1 m3 of Mg, total 1.74 density of Mg can be discovered.

Magnesium melting point

Melting point is that particular temperature in which an element starts to melt from its solid state to liquid. Let us discuss the melting point of Mg.

The melting point of Magnesium is noticed as almost 650 °C (923 K). It is the lowest amount of temperature in which an element melts in the periodic table.

Magnesium boiling point

Boiling point is defined as the specific temperature in which a periodic element begins to vaporize. Let us identify the boiling point of Mg.

The boiling point of magnesium is around 1090 °C (1360 K). This is also the lowest temperature within the range of boiling point of other elements.

Magnesium Van der Waals radius

Scientist Van der Waals discovered a particular characteristic of periodic element named as atomic radius (rw). Let us identify the Van der Waals radius of Mg.

The Van der Waals radius of Magnesium is 173 pm. It refers to the radius of imaginary hard sphere created by the last electronic shell of the element.

Magnesium ionic radius

The radius of monoatomic ions created by an element after leaving or adopting extra electrons in the last shell is called Ionic radius (rion). Let us find the ionic radius of Mg.

The ionic radius of Mg2+ is 66pm. It is clear that Magnesium has a huge tendency to reduce or leave electrons and make monoatomic cation.

Magnesium isotopes

Isotopes are different forms of elements with same atomic number but different nucleon number. Let us find the isotopes of Mg below.

The three stable isotopes of Mg are 24Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg. Otherwise, there are a total of 19 radioisotopes of Magnesium which are quite unstable.

Magnesium electronic shell

Electronic shells are those pathways that hold electrons in elements just as sun holds planets in the elliptical pathway. Let us see how many electronic shell Mg has.

There are three electronic shells in one atom of magnesium. The first shell holds 2 electrons, second shell holds 8 electrons and the last shell have 2 electrons.

Magnesium energy of first ionisation

First ionisation energy can be defined as the amount of energy required to leave the outermost electron from last energy level of atoms. Let us find the first I.E. of magnesium.

The first ionisation energy of magnesium is 737.7kJ/mol.

Magnesium energy of second ionisation

Second ionisation energy is that energy which is required to remove the second valence electron after possessing +1 charge in atom. Let us find the second I.E. of Mg.

The second ionisation energy of Magnesium is 1450.7 kJ/mol.

Magnesium energy of third ionisation

Third ionisation energy refers to the energy required to reduce third electron from atoms with +2 charge. Let us find third ionisation of magnesium here.

The third ionisation energy of Magnesium is 7732.7 kJ/mol.

Magnesium oxidation states

Oxidation state refers to the specific number of electrons that can be lost by an element in periodic table. The oxidation state of magnesium is identified below.

The only oxidation state of Magnesium is +2. Mg has only two electron in its valence shell that is why it has the capacity of leaving only 2 electrons.

Magnesium electron configurations

Electronic configuration refers to the arrangement of electrons in the orbitals. This is represented through Aufbau principle. Let us denote Magnesium’s electronic configuration.

The electronic configuration of Magnesium is [Ne] 3s2 . The complete configuration in accordance with the Aufbau principle can be represented as 1s2 2s2 3p6 3s2.  It means all the electrons are limited in s and p orbital of the atoms of Mg.

Magnesium CAS number

CAS number of chemicals refer to the Chemical Abstracts Services, which uniquely create an identification of the elements. Let us mention the CAS number held by Mg.

CAS number of Magnesium is 7439-95-4. This is also called CAS Id of the elements, which distinguishes one from another.

Magnesium ChemSpider ID

ChemSpider is a chemical database in online platform that can be freely accessed by anyone to know about chemical properties of element. Let us find Mg’s Id in ChemSpider.

The ChemSpider Id of Mg is 4575328. By using this Id, anyone can search about magnesium and its properties in ChemSpider database.

Magnesium chemical classification

Chemical classification identifies the features possessed by the elements that can differ one from another. Let us find those features of Magnesium here.

Magnesium is the lightest alkaline earth metal in the periodic table. Mg is very essential in the cellular life as one of the key chemical component of cell formation.

Magnesium state at room temperature

Element can appear in room temperature with three different state such as solid, liquid and gaseous. Let us identify which state Mg adopts naturally.

In room temperature, magnesium appears as a solid element with shiny grey colour.

Is Magnesium paramagnetic?

Paramagnetic elements or compounds are those which does not possess any unpaired electronic configuration. Let us find if Mg is paramagnetic or not.

Mg is identified as a paramagnetic element as it has no unpaired electrons in configuration.


The article has identified more than 23 chemical facts about the earth metal Magnesium. Its existence in the periodic table is unique than any other elements. The element possess all general chemical properties but in its own way.

Scroll to Top