Lv or Livermorium is a transactinide element and extremely radioactive in nature which is prepared only in the laboratory. Let us explain Livermorium in detail.
Livermorium is the synthetic element that is placed in group 16. It is the heaviest element among the chalcogens. The property of Lv is quite similar to another homolog of group 16 like oxygen, and sulfur. It is also a post-transition metal element like polonium.
In this article, let us discuss some of the chemical as well as physical properties of Livermorium, such as melting point, boiling point, atomic number, etc.
1. Livermorium symbol
The atomic symbol of Livermorium is “Lv” which is coming from the English alphabet. As Li is taken for lithium in alkali metal so we use “Lv” instead of Li for the abbreviation of Livermorium as an atomic symbol.
2. Livermorium group in the periodic table
The group of Livermorium in the periodic table is 16 because it is a chalcogen metal. So, it is placed in the 16th group as an element. In the Mendeleev periodic table, it is group 16 but in the modern table, it is placed as the VIA group as per the precipitation table.
3. Livermorium period in the periodic table
Livermorium belongs to period 7 in the periodic table because it has more than 86 electrons in the valence shell. Up to period 6, there will be 86th elements that are well placed, so the remaining 30 electrons get the 7th period after the actinide series along with the post-transition element.
4. Livermorium block in the periodic table
Livermorium is a p-block element because the valence electrons are present in the p orbital. Lv also has s, d, and f orbitals but the outermost electrons are present in the 7p orbital according to the Aufbau principle.
5. Livermorium atomic number
The atomic number of Livermorium is 116, which means it has 116 protons because the number of protons is always equal to the number of electrons. For this reason, they become neutral due to the neutralization of equal and opposite charges.
6. Livermorium atomic Weight
The atomic weight of Livermorium is 293 on the 12C scale which means the weight of Livermorium is the 293/12th part of the weight of the carbon element. The original atomic weight of Livermorium is 293.08, it is because the atomic weight is the average weight of all the isotopes of the element.
7. Livermorium Electronegativity according to Pauling
The electronegativity of Livermorium is 2 according to the Pauling scale, which means it has electronegative nature and can attract electrons toward itself. The group 16th element has higher electronegativity nature like Oxygen but as the group decreases, electronegativity also decreases.
8. Livermorium atomic Density
The atomic density of Livermorium is 12.9 g/cm3 which can be calculated by dividing the mass of Livermorium with its volume. Atomic density means the number of atoms present per unit volume but the atomic number is the number of electrons present in the valence and inner orbital.
- Density is calculated by the formula, atomic density = atomic mass / atomic volume.
- The atomic mass or weight of Livermorium is 289 g
- The volume of the Livermorium molecule is 22.4 liter at STP as per Avogardo’s calculation
- So, the atomic density of Livermorium is, 293/ (22.4) = 13.08 g/cm3
9. Livermorium melting point
The melting point of Livermorium lies from 637 K to 780 K temperature because at room temperature Livermorium exists as extremely radioactive. It needs less energy to melt the crystal into a liquid. By increasing the temperature, the elements can be placed in good arrangement.
10. Livermorium boiling point
The boiling point of Livermorium is from 1035 K to 1135K because it exists in solid form at room temperature and also it is a post-transition metal element. Due to its radioactive nature, the value also fluctuates.
11. Livermorium Van der Waals radius
The Van der Waal’s radius of Livermorium is 175 pm because it has 7s and a filled 6d, 5f orbital so it has a very poor screening effect. For this reason, the nucleus attraction force for the outermost orbital increases, and this decreases the radius.
- Van der Waal’s radius is calculated by the mathematical formula considering the distance between two atoms, where atoms are spherical in shape.
- Van der Waal’s radius is, Rv = dA-A / 2
- Where RV stands for Van Waal’s radius of the molecule of spherical shape
- dA-A is the distance between two adjacent spheres of the atomic molecule or the summation of a radius of two atoms.
12. Livermorium ionic radius
The ionic radius of Livermorium is 175 pm which is the same as the covalent radius because for Livermorium the cation and anion are the same and it is not an ionic molecule. Rather, it forms by the covalent interaction between two Livermorium atoms.
13. Livermorium isotopes
Elements having the same number of electrons but different mass numbers are called isotopes of the original element. Let us discuss the isotopes of Livermorium.
Stable isotopes are discussed in the below section of Livermorium:
Livermorium is an artificial element and due to this reason, it has zero stable isotopes when first it was synthesized. After that above five isotopes are synthesized in the laboratory with very low stability as it has a highly radioactive nature.
14. Livermorium electronic shell
The shell surrounding the nucleus as per principal quantum number and holding the electrons is called an electronic shell. Let us discuss the electronic shell of Livermorium.
The electronic shell distribution of Livermorium is 2 8 18 32 32 18 6 because it has s, p, d, and f orbitals around the nucleus. Since it has more than 86 electrons and to arrange 116 electrons, it needs 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, 5f, 6s, 6p, 6d, 7s, 7p orbitals.
15. Livermorium electron configurations
The electronic configuration of Livermorium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f14 6s2 6p4 6d10 7s2 7p4 because it has 115 electrons and those electrons should be placed to the nearest orbital of the nucleus s, p, d, and f orbitals and for the 1st,2nd, 3rd, 4th,5th, 6th, 7th orbitals.
- Due to exchange energy, electrons enter first in 6s orbital then 5d.
- Where the first number stands for the principal quantum number
- The letter is for orbital and the suffix number is the number of electrons.
- But many elements have more principal quantum numbers depending on the number of electrons.
- Rn has 86 electrons, so the remaining electrons are present after the noble gas configuration.
- So, it is denoted as [Rn]5f146d107s27p4.
16. Livermorium energy of first ionization
The first ionization value for Lv is 663.9 KJ/mol because the electron is removed from the filled 7p orbital. The removal of the first electron Lv gets extra stability as it gets a half-filled configuration. Although the presence of 6s, and 5f orbital but the first ionization energy of Lv is very low.
17. Livermorium energy of second ionization
The 2nd ionization energy of Livermorium is 1330 KJ/mol because, in the 2nd ionization, electrons are removed from the half-filled 6p orbital. Upon 2nd ionization, Lv loses its stability so the process is unfavorable and for this reason, 2nd ionization is almost double of first I.E.
18. Livermorium energy of third ionization
The third ionization energy for Lv is 28500 KJ/mol because the third ionization occurs from 7p orbital and gets stabilization but the value is higher than expected because
- Lv has a 7s orbital which is subject to relativistic contraction and for this, the nucleus attraction for the outer electrons will increase.
- Lv has also 5f and 6d orbital which is subject to poor shielding effect and for this reason also nucleus attraction force on the outer electrons will be increased and the removal of the electron requires larger amount of energy.
19. Livermorium oxidation states
Lv has -2,+2, and +4 stable oxidation states like other elements in group 16. Due to the inert pair effect, the electrons try to stay in the 7s orbital as paired form, so it cannot show hexavalent nature as the promotional energy from 7s to 7d is very high.
20. Livermorium CAS number
The CAS number of the Livermorium molecule is 54100-71-9, which is given by the chemical abstracts service.
21. Livermorium Chem Spider ID
The Chem Spider ID for Livermorium is 4886708. By using this number, we can evaluate all the chemical data related to the Livermorium atom.
22. Livermorium allotropic forms
Allotropes are elements or molecules with similar chemical properties but different physical properties. Let us discuss the allotropic form of Livermorium.
Livermorium has no allotropes because it is a synthetic radioactive element that can be stable in the laboratory. Due to constant decay we cannot find it in pure form.
23. Livermorium chemical classification
Livermorium is classified into the following categories:
- Lv is a post-transition chalcogen metal element
- Lv is a transactinide metal
- Lv is a strong artificical radioactive synthetic element
- Lv is a super heavy element
24. Livermorium state at room temperature
Livermorium exists in a solid state at room temperature because it has higher Van der Waal interaction. In the crystal form, it adopts rhombohedral geometry so the atoms exist very close to each other. The randomness of the atom is very high at room temperature.
The solid-state of Livermorium can be changed to liquid at a very low temperature, where the randomness will be decreased for the Livermorium atom.
25. Is Livermorium paramagnetic?
Paramagnetism is the tendency of magnetization in the direction of the magnetic field. Let us see whether Livermorium is paramagnetic or not.
Livermorium is paramagnetic due to the presence of two unpaired electrons in the valence 7p orbital. due to its highly radioactive nature, we cannot predict the molar susceptibility of Livermorium.
Livermorium group 16th artificial radioactive element almost zero stability. It’s very difficult to handle with this element in other experiments due to excessive radioactive decay. livermorium is the element which is not found in the nature.