LiCl lewis structur :Drawings, Hybridization, Shape,Charges,Pairs


This article explains LiCl lewis structure, its hybridization, shape, and other facts.

LiCl is an ionic compound. Lithium has one valence electron in its valence shell(2s1) with no lone pair and chlorine has seven valence electrons(3s23p5) with three lone pairs on chlorine.

LiCl lewis structure octet rule

Atoms participate in chemical bonding in a way that each atom tries to attain eight electrons(octet) in their valence shell. This is the octet rule.

The completion of octet can be done by atoms by either sharing valence electrons as seen in covalent bonding or transferring valence electrons, in the case of ionic bonding. In LiCl, chlorine needs an electron to complete its valence shell [it has seven electrons in its outer shell(3s2 3p5)].

Lithium gains stability by donating its only valence electron(present in the 2s orbital) to chlorine; by doing so, its electronic configuration becomes 1s2, which resembles the configuration of helium(a noble gas).Lithium does not obey the octet rule.

How to draw licl lewis structure?

The lewis structure is a visual representation that helps us understand how the lone pairs and bond pair electrons are arranged in a molecule. In lewis structure, the electrons are shown by dots, and the bonds are shown by a dash.

First, we recognise the central atom; here there is no need of a central atom as only two atoms are present. Next, we calculate the number of valence electrons of each atom. Lithium has one valence electron and chlorine has seven valence electrons. Now using the knowledge of the octet rule, we will try to satisfy each atom’s octet. Chlorine needs only one more electron to complete its valence shell.Lithium(being a metal) donates an electron to chlorine and gets a positive charge. Lithium get a negative charge as it gains an electron. The lewis electron dot structure of lithium chloride is shown below:

LiCl lewis structure resonance

Sometimes, multiple lewis structures can be drawn that differ in the placements of bonds and formal charges.The different lewis structures possible for a molecule are the resonance structures.

There is only one lewis structure possible in case of LiCl, so resonance is not present.

LiCl Hybridization

Hybridization is an important concept that is valid only in the case of covalent compounds where there is an overlap of orbitals in the bond formation.

Since LiCl is an ionic compound, it does not undergo hybridization.Ionic compounds do not undergo hybridization as there is no overlap or mixing of orbitals in their case; only the transfer of electrons occurs.

LiCl uses

  • There are a lot of industrial and medicinal uses of lithium chloride. The key uses are listed below:
  • LiCl undergoes electrolysis to produce lithium metal. Lithium metal is a key component in lithium-ion batteries.
  • It is a mood stabilizer that also has anti-suicidal effects.
  • LiCl is used clinically to manage bipolar disorder.
  • It is used to synthesize RNA and separate it from the biological system.
  • It can block pathways that lead to brain-cell death and prevent the damaging effects of substance abuse.
  • LiCl solution absorbs moisture from the air and is used as a desiccant in the air-conditioning industry to dehumidify the air.
  • It produces dark red flames and can be used as a flame colorant.
  • Smelting of iron is done by using lithium chloride.
  • The automobile industry uses LiCl to braze aluminum.

Is LiCl stable?

Ionic structures have high lattice energy which contributes to their stability.

LiCl is stable due to the above reason(its lattice energy is 853 KJ/mol). As the lattice energy increases, it gets difficult to break the bond. As a result, the compound gains thermal stability.

LiCl lewis structure shape

Lithium chloride crystal has a cubic shape in which lithium cation is surrounded by six chloride ions and vice-versa. Each ion in this crystal has a coordination number of six and has an octahedral geometry with fcc lattice.

It has a rocksalt-type structure. In the crystal structure below, the green balls can be visualized as lithium cations and the red balls as chloride ions.

licl lewis structure
LiCl crystal structure from wikipedia

LiCl lewis structure formal charge

When atoms form a bond, the electrons are not shared equally due to the different electronegativities of atoms. Suppose the electronegativities of atoms were equal, then the bonded electrons would be shared equally; if we now assign a charge, we would get the formal charge.

In ionic bonding, the ions do not participate in chemical bonding( they have electrostatic attraction). Hence we cannot calculate the formal charge for ionic LiCl.It is not a real charge, and it does not represent the actual distribution of electrons.

The lewis structure with the lowest formal charge is the most stable.The formal charge is given by the formula: V-N-[B/2]; where V is the number of valence electrons of a free atom, B is the number of bonding electrons, and N is the non-bonding or lone pair electrons.

Conclusion

To summarize everything, LiCl is an ionic compound with various medicinal and industrial uses. It has octahedral geometry with a face-centered cubic crystal lattice.

Sakshi Anand

Hello, I am Sakshi Anand and I am here to make chemistry easy and enjoyable to read. Complex ideas do not require complex language. I am an avid reader and enjoy researching intensively.

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