Li+ Lewis Structure & Characteristics: 11 Complete Facts


Li+ lewis structure is a cation of lithium metal in the periodic table. Let us discuss about the cation Li+

Li+ lewis structure as the name suggests is lithium monovalent cation with +1 charge. Lithium has 1 valence electron and to attain its duplet stability it loses 1 electron and forms Li+ lewis structure like many alkali metals of the periodic table.

Li+ lewis structure is used in the semiconductor industry and complexation reactions. The size and charge of the Li+ lewis structure have a major influence on complex formation. Also, it exhibits charging-discharging and electrochemical properties. Let us analyze properties associated with it like polarity, solubility, bonding, etc.

How to draw Li+ lewis structure?

Li+ lewis structure is not complex as compared to other molecular lewis structures due to the presence of a single entity. Let us chronologically understand its lewis structure.

Step1: Total number of valence electrons involved

Li+ lewis structure is lithium in cationic form and has 1 valence electron. This is because it is a simplified structure and Li belongs to group1 of the periodic table. So according to the octet criteria electronic configuration 2,1, the total number of valence electrons is restricted to 1.

Step2: Checking the presence of the central atom

Li+ lewis structure has no concept of a central atom. Unlike other lewis structures, the Li+ lewis structure is a simplified structure with only 1 element involved. Hence the presence of the central atom is neither valid nor possible here.

Step3:  Completion of duplet instead of an octet

Li+ lewis structure does not follow octet criteria and being a metal loses 1 electron to achieve stability nearest to noble gas helium configuration. Hence after completing its duplet stability, it acquires +1 charge and is denoted as Li+ lewis structure or lithium cation.

Step4: Formal charge calculation 

The formal charge of the Li+ lewis structure is 1. Li+ lewis structure is a monatomic ion so the usual way of finding formal charge which should be 0 in a polyatomic molecule for stability is not functional here. Hence in ions, the individual charge is considered the formal charge.

Li+lewis structure
Li+ lewis structure representation

Li+ lewis structure shape

The shape of the molecule is decided by the arrangement of the atoms in the polyatomic molecules. Let us figure out the scenario in monatomic ions.

Li+ lewis structure has no shape because it is a monovalent cation with a single entity where ions are held together by electron density and hence it cannot have any particular arrangement as expected in other lewis structures.

Li+ lewis structure
Li+ lewis structure 3D representation

Li+ lewis structure formal charge

A formal charge is a charge present on an individual atom in a molecule during bonding. Let us calculate the formal charge of the Li+ lewis structure

The formal charge of the Li+ lewis structure is 1. It cannot be calculated by the conventional formal charge formula because it is not exhibiting any kind of bonding and is a singular entity. 

In individual ions whether cations or anions there is stability but there is no bonding with other atoms. So in such monatomic ions, there is no difference between ionic charge and formal charge as the electric field is distributed on the single ion.

Li+ lewis structure angle

The concept of bond angle is related to the shape and molecular geometry of the lewis structure. Let us check the status of the bond angle in the Li+ lewis structure.

Li+ lewis structure does not have a bond angle. The bond angle is formed between individual atoms through bonding. But in the Li+ lewis structure, no such conditions prevail.

The bond angle is directly proportional to the molecular geometry and the shape of the molecule. They are intertwined with each other. Li+ lewis structure does not have a shape hence the possibility of having a bond angle is negligible.

Li+ lewis structure octet rule

The octet rule is the stability criteria for main group elements but certain elements are exceptions. Let us figure out how the Li+ lewis structure is an exceptional case.

Li+ lewis structure follows the duplet rule instead of the octet rule. This is because lithium as an atom has 3 electrons with electronic configuration 2,1. Hence its stability is to helium noble gas which is a duplet.

Li+ lewis structure lone pair

Lone pairs of electrons have no contribution to chemical bond formation. Let us lookout whether they have a role in the Li+ lewis structure.

Li+ lewis structure has no lone pair of electrons. It is a charged species and is monoatomic which is stable by donation of 1 electron. So, it has a positive charge on it but no lone pair of electrons.

Li+ valence electrons

Valence electrons because of less attraction from the nucleus can easily become the right candidate for chemical bonding. Let us discuss the valence electrons in the Li+.

Li+ has 2 valence electrons. It is calculated below.

  • Total number of valence electrons in Li atom = 3
  • Electron loss for achieving duplet stability = 1
  • Valence electrons in Li+ = 3 -1 = 2
  • Hence Li+ has 2 valence electrons which are equal to helium noble gas configuration.

Li+ hybridization

Hybridization is the intermixing of the atomic orbitals where new hybrid orbitals are formed which have different shapes and sizes. Let us discuss whether hybridization is possible in the Li+ or not.

Li+ does not exhibit hybridization because it is not an organic compound and does not have a definite shape. Hybridization as such is not observed because of arrangement of positive charges together where they are tightly packed in the crystal lattice.

Is Li+ polar or nonpolar?

The polarity of any lewis structure is related to the electronegativity of the compound. Let us find out the polarity of the Li+.

Li+ is polar because it is an ionic species with a positive charge. Being a positive charge species, it has a significant charge density which is responsible for its considerable polarity. Also, the Li+ belongs to the 1st group of the periodic table which shows extreme metallic behavior.

Is Li+ an electrolyte?

Electrolytes are the salts or compounds which act as a medium for ions for conduction of electricity. Let us figure out whether the Li+ belongs to this category.

Li+ is an electrolyte because it can dissociate into ions and are solvable. Li+ as an electrolyte can serve as a passage for its ions in its medium because it can show various electrochemical reactions. This mechanism of self-dissociation by its salts is possible due to its alkali properties.

Is Li+ ionic or covalent?

Ionic or covalent character is based on the way of bonding and it is very much distinguished in the periodic table except for the metalloids. Let us check the same for the Li+.

Li+ is an ionic species because it is a metal in its usual form and is formed by the loss of electrons to gain stability. Also, it is a charged cationic species. So, metal and the capacity to donate an electron to form a positive charge species are the traits that designate it as an ionic entity.

Conclusion

In nutshell, the Li+ lewis structure is just a monovalent cation formed by the loss of 1 electron. As it is a single entity, so the bonding properties generally related to lewis structure like shape, hybridization, angle, and lone pair have no significance. But it does exhibit electronic properties related to the ionic compounds.

Mansi Sharma

Hello, I am Mansi Sharma, I have completed my master's in Chemistry. I personally believe that learning is more enthusiastic when learnt with creativity. I am a Subject Matter Expert in Chemistry. Let's connect through LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/mansi-sharma22

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