Lead is represented by the symbol “Pb.” Let us see some important facts about the electronic configuration of Lead in this article.
Lead is a ‘p’ block element. It belongs to the carbon family. It appears as metallic grey. It comes under group 14 and the 6th period of the periodic table. Pb has the atomic number 82 and an atomic weight of 207.2. It is located to the right of the transition metal and to the left of the metalloids.
Let us discuss some important parameters related to lead, such as lead electronic configuration, lead electronic configuration diagram, lead electronic configuration notation, and more such facts in this editorial.
How to write lead electron configuration
Electronic configuration can be written step by step as given below.
- Step 1: First step is to find out number of shell.
- It is found that lead has 6 electron shell.
- Step 2: Second step is to find out orbitals.
- S, p, d and f are the four orbitals which hold electrons.
- S orbital can hold maximum two electrons, p orbital can hold maximum six electrons and in d and f orbitals 10 and 14 maximum electrons can be filled.
- Step 3: In this step orbital are filled with electrons according to Aufbau principle in increasing order of energy level of orbital.
- First 1s orbital filled as it has least energy.
- Then electron get paired according to Hund’s rule with their spin in opposite direction followed by Pauli Exclusion Principle.
- Electron filled in orbital is written in the form of superscript. Example 1s2 here 2 in superscript form represent number of electrons.
Thus final configuration of lead can be written as
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p2
The lead electron configuration diagram
The Lead atom has 82 electrons. The electronic configuration of Lead can be represented by a diagram as shown below.
- 1s orbital having the least energy and maximum capacity of two electrons, is filled first. Next to this 2s orbital which can hold a maximum of two electrons, is filled.
- After this, the electron enters in 2p orbital, which holds a maximum of six electrons.
- After the 2p orbital, the 3s orbital is filled, which can hold a maximum of two electrons.
- In the same way, after 3s, 3p, and 4s orbital filled.
- After 4s, electrons enter the 3d orbital, which can hold a maximum of ten electrons.
- In the same way 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s orbital are filled.
- Next to 6s, electrons enter the 4f orbital having a maximum capacity of holding fourteen electrons.
- After 4f, 5d, and 6p orbitals are filled. So the diagram can be written as below.
Lead electron configuration notation
The electronic configuration of Lead can be shown below.
[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2
The electronic configuration notation of Lead consists of a total of 82 electrons. First, 54 electrons are represented by writing the Xenon gas symbol. Next, two electrons in the 6s orbital, fourteen electrons in the 4f orbital, ten electrons in the 5d orbital, and two electrons in the 6p orbital.
Lead unabbreviated electron configuration
Lead unabbreviated electron configuration can be written as below.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p2
Lead unabbreviated electron configuration contains 82 electrons which can be distributed in a different orbital as below.
- 1s orbital with two electrons
- 2s orbital with two electrons.
- 2p orbital with six electrons.
- 3s orbital with two electrons.
- Six electrons in 3p orbital.
- Two electrons in 4s orbital
- Ten electrons in 3d orbital
- Six electrons in 4p orbital
- Two electrons in 5s orbital
- Ten electrons in 4d orbital
- Six electrons in 5p orbital
- Two electrons in 6s orbital
- Fourteen electrons in 4f orbital
- Ten electrons in 5d orbital
- Two electrons in 6p orbital
Ground state lead electron configuration
The ground state is the most stable arrangement. Ground state electronic configuration of Lead can be depicted below.
The excited state of lead electron configuration
This arrangement is of higher energy level. In the ground state, the Pb atom contains two unpaired electrons. When the Pb atom gets excited then, it absorbs energy. Due to the gain of this energy, an electron from 6s orbital jump to 6pz orbital. Excited state electronic configuration of Lead can be drawn below.
Ground state lead orbital diagram
The orbital diagram is formed using Hund’s rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle. As 1s orbital is the least energy orbital and nearest to the nucleus electron enters in 1s orbital first. According to Hund’s rule, first, an electron enters in a clockwise direction, and second, in an anticlockwise direction.
Lead 2+ electron configuration
The electronic configuration of Pb2+ can be written below.
Pb2+ ⟶ 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10
As we know, in the 6p orbital of Pb, two unpaired electrons are present. Pb donates these two electrons and forms Pb2+, which is a cation.
Pb – 2e– ⟶ Pb2+
The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons in different orbitals, which have different energy levels. In a Lead atom, there are a total of 82 electrons in its orbital. Lead is used in a storage battery. In cable covering, it is also used. It is also used in the alloy.
Read more about following configurations: