Lathe Machine Working: Detailed  Explainations  about Each Parts

In this article the topic of “Lathe machine working” about every parts is discuss in a brief manner. The lathe is actually a machine tool that is mainly used to remove excess amount of material from the face workpiece.

Lathe is a machine tool. The lathe which about an axis is rotate a workpiece to carry out various types of functions such as facing, drilling, cutting, turning, deformation, knurling, sanding, with the help of tools which is exerted to the workpiece thus a needed shaped object can get.

The parts of the lathe machine:-

Lathe machine working with detailed explanations about each part:-

The each parts of the lathe working with detailed explanations is discuss below,


In the machine tool of the lathe the part plays an important role is Headstock. The headstock permanently mounted in the inner guide ways of the bed in the left side.

Headstock contains some parts such as back bear drive, main spindle, a chuck which is fitted at the spindle nose and also all the gear drive.

lathe machine working
Image – A metalworking lathe from 1911, showing component parts:
a: bed
b: carriage (with cross-slide and tool post)
c: headstock
d: back gear (other gear train nearby drives lead screw)
e: cone pulley for a belt drive from an external power source
f: faceplate mounted on spindle
g: tailstock
h: leadscrew;

Image Credit – Wikipedia


The work of the headstock is to carry the whole mechanism or pegs of the lathe machine tool which is hold the strings at the top of the instrument. At the tail of the lathe the strings of the string are usually carry by the bridge or tailpiece.


The accessories carried by the headstock spindle is listed below,

  1. Three jaw chuck
  2. Magnetic chuck
  3. Four jaw chuck
  4. Collect chuck
  5. Faceplate
  6. Lathe center
  7. Lathe dog


The bed of the machine tool of the lathe forms the base.

Bed of the lathe is made with cast iron. The top surface of the bed is machined precisely and accurately.

The bed of the lathe is bolted to the ground.

The bed is placed in the legs of the machine tool of the lathe.


The base of the bed for a machine tool of lathe is robust and by the help of bed headstock is connected and allows and tailstock the carriage to be moved freely parallel by the axis of the spindle.

Support is given by the bed of the parts of the lathe machine tool such as, carriage, tailstock, feed mechanism and many more.

Deflection made by the cutting force which is prevent by the bed.

A bed is rigid and has enough good capacity to take vibration of the machine tool

Tail stock:-

The body of the tailstock is made with cast iron.

The structure of the tailstock is house and bored the spindle of the tailstock.

Tailstock is placed on the right side exactly above the bed of the machine tool of lathe.


The tail stock grips the tool so that the tools can perform different types of operations such as tapping, drilling, reaming and many more.

The tail stock support the longer end o the job for minimize and holding its sagging.

Main spindle:-

The main spindle is a shaft which is hollow cylindrical and in between the main spindle long job easily can go through.

The design of the main spindle is so good thus the cutting tool of the lathe machine tool thus thrust cannot deflect the spindle.


The carriage of the lathe machine tool is used to guide, support and also feed against the workpiece when the machining is done.

The parts which are carrying by the carriage are listed below,

  1. Apron
  2. Cross – slide
  3. Saddle
  4. Toolpost
  5. Compound rest

The three movements which are provide by the carriage to the workpiece are listed below,

  1. Longitudinal feed through carriage movement
  2. Cross feed through slide movement
  3. Angular feed through slide movement


The carriage controls and moves the cutting tool.

During the operation the carriage provide a rigid support to the tool.

Transform the power from the feed rod to the cutting tool by the apron mechanism for longitudinal cross – feeding.

Lathe machine operations:

The operations is done by the lathe machine is listed below,


On the lathe machine tool facing is acts as a facing tool for cutting a flat area perpendicular to the job’s rotational axis. A facing tool is situated into a tool holder that is rest on the carriage of the machine tool of the lathe.

After that the tool will be feed perpendicularly to the area’s rotational axis as it rotates in the jaw of the chuck. The user has the option for hand feeding the machine tool of the lathe while facing or the power feed option can be use. For getting a more smooth surface, the power feed option is uses to appeasement due to a feed rate which stays at constant. Factors which are affect the effectiveness and quality of facing actions on the lathe machine tool such as, cutter size, speeds and feeds, material hardness, and also how the section is clamped down.


Centering is a process of gripping the job into chuck of the machine tool of the lathe, face place and drive plate on the center portion of the lathe machine. The process of the center is needed for the workpiece concentric to the center for the machining into the cylindrical shaped.

Work to be turned in the machine tool of the lathe may be either held in the centres; or fastened in a chuck, or clamped to the faceplate. The work which is to be faced or turned true with a finished hole is held either no a mandrel between centres, or on a special mandrel the shank of which fits the spindle. In the case of work to be held between the live and dead centres of the lathe, first sixty degree counter-sink holes (which fit the sixty degree lathe centres) are drilled and reamed in both ends of the work.

The work is fitted in the centres and is usually driven from the face-plate by means of a dog which is securely clamped to it on the live-centre end. The work thus turns with the live centre which acts both as a support and a bearing.


Grooving is an operation by which diameter is reduced of a workpiece in a very narrow space. With the help of groove tool the operation grooving is done. Grooving tool is almost same to the parting tool. It is frequently done at the part of the end of a thread or neighbouring to a shoulder to parting a small margin.

Image – Groove on a cylinder; Image Credit – Wikipedia


Chamfering is an operation which is done in the end section of the bolt and the end section of the shaft. In the chamfering operation on the workpiece which is mainly in cylindrical shaped get a bevelled area. By the help of chamfering damage can be avoided in the edges of the sharp and also protect the operation getting hurt during the other operation. The chamfering operation helps to screw the nut upon the bolt.


Knurling is an operation by which in a workpiece diamond shape is obtained for the purpose of the gripping. Knurling operation is done for holding better into the surface of the workpiece when operation done by hand. By the using a knurling tool the operation of knurling is done. The knurling tool carried of a set of hardening steel roller and rigidly holds the toolpost.


Most of the turning methods that appear with external turning are also to be found in boring. With external turning, the length of the workpiece does not affect the tool overhang and the size of the toolholder can be chosen so that it withstands the forces and stresses that arise during the operation. However, with internal turning, or boring, the choice of tool is very much restricted by the workpiece’s hole diameter and length.

A general rule, which applies to all machining, is to minimize the tool overhang to obtain the best possible stability and thereby accuracy. With boring the depth of the hole determines the overhang. The stability is increased when a larger tool diameter is used, but even then the possibilities are limited since the space allowed by the diameter of the hole in the workpiece must be taken into consideration for chip evacuation and radial movements.

The other operations which are done by the lathe machine named are also listed below,

  • Rough turning
  • Finish turning
  • Recessing
  • Reaming by occupying the cutting tool by the help of taper upon the short length
  • Boring (internal turning) taper and straight
  • Cutting helical threads
  • Forming internal and external
  • Taper turning
  • Axial drilling
  • Shouldering

Lathe machine specification:

The specifications of lathe machine are listed below,

  • Lead screw pitch
  • Maximum diameter of the bar
  • The length by the centers of the two
  • Height of the center
  • Tailstock sleeve travel
  • Motor horse power and Revolution per minute
  • Shipping dimension (Weight * Length * height * Width)
  • Metric thread pitches
  • Swing diameter on the bed

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