KClO4 Lewis Structure & Characteristics (15 Complete Facts)


Lewis structure is the representation of the valence electrons in a schematic way of lines and dots. We are discussing brief details on the KClO4 lewis structure below.

KClO4 is the chemical formula of Potassium perchlorate. KClO4 is a polyatomic ion. It consists of metal potassium and polyatomic anion having non – metallic atoms i.e. chlorine and oxygen. Both K+ cation and ClO4 anion are held together forming a strong ionic bond between them.

In the KClO4 lewis structure, the potassium metal gives its one electron to the ClO4 group due to which it has a +1 charge on K and a -1 charge on the ClO4 species. Thus, ClO4 anion is shown in the square bracket in the KClO4 lewis structure. Take a brief look at the lone pairs, hybridization, octet, valence electrons, and other characteristics with some facts about the KClO4 lewis structure.

How to draw KClO4 lewis structure?

While drawing the KClO4 lewis structure we have to remember the following points explained below.

Valence electrons and bonding within KClO4.

Count the overall valence electrons of the KClO4 lewis structure by adding all the valence electrons of each K, Cl, and 4 O atom. Afterward make the bonds between all the K, Cl, and 4 O atoms.

Lone pairs and application of octet rule on KClO4.

The leftover valence electrons on KClO4 after bonding within all atoms get placed over the outer bonded atoms and then on the central Cl atom. Later to check whether the K, Cl, and O atoms have complete or incomplete octets apply the octet rule to them.

Formal charge present on the KClO4 and its shape.

The formal charge that occurs on the KClO4 lewis structure is determined with the help of using a specific formula for a formal charge. Also predict the shape, hybridization, bond angle, etc. of KClO4 lewis structure.

KClO4 lewis structure

KClO4 valence electrons

The electrons of an atom available in its outer orbital for sharing with other atoms are called valence electrons. Let us discuss in more brief detail KClO4 valence electrons.

The KClO4 is composed of a total of 32 valence electrons. The K atom comes under the 1st periodic table group and has only one valence electron. The Cl and O atoms come under the 17th and 16th periodic table groups and thus have 7 and 6 valence electrons respectively.

The calculation for overall valence electrons present on KClO4 is given in the below steps.

  • The K atoms contains valence electrons is = 01 x 01 (K) = 01
  • The Cl atoms contains valence electrons is = 07 x 01 (Cl) = 07
  • The O atoms contains valence electrons is = 06 x 04 (O) = 24
  • The total of valence electrons on KClO4 lewis structure is = 01 (K) + 07 (Cl) + 24 (O) = 32
  • The total electron pairs present on KClO4 is evaluated by dividing its valence electrons by 2 is = 32 / 2 = 16
  • Therefore, the KClO4 lewis structure has a total of 32 valence electrons and 16 electron pairs present on it.

KClO4 lewis structure lone pairs

The non-bonding electrons left in a molecule after the bonding within all atoms are called lone pairs of electrons. Here we are discussing more details on KClO4 lone pair electrons.

The KClO4 has 12 lone pair electrons present on it. It has a total of 32 valence electrons, from them eight electrons are engaged in bonding forming 4 bond pair electrons. Leftover 24 unshared electrons to go to outer 4 O atoms and being 12 lone pairs of electrons on KClO4.

KClO4 lewis structure octet rule

The presence of eight electrons in the outer shell of an atom or molecule shows its stability. Let us have some more brief detailed discussion on the application of the octet rule on KClO4.

The KClO4 has complete octets of all the Cl and O atoms of the polyatomic anion. While the K+ does not show octet due to the loss of its electrons. The central Cl atoms of ClO4 anion are surrounded by 8 bonding electrons and have a complete octet.

The outer 4 O atoms of KClO4 are surrounded by 6 non – bonding electrons and two bonding electrons. Thus each O atom is surrounded by a total of 8 electrons and shows its complete octet.

KClO4 lewis structure formal charge

The formal charge is the minimum positive or negative charge that occurs on an atom or molecule as it loses or gains electrons. Take a look below at the details of the KClO4 formal charge.

The formal charge of KClO4 is = (valence electrons – non-bonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons)

Here the detailed calculation for the formal charge present on the KClO4 lewis structure is given in the following table.

Atoms of
KClO4 lewis
structure
Valence electrons
on K, Cl,
and O atoms
Non – bonding
electrons on
K, Cl, and
O atoms
Bonding electrons
on K, Cl,
and O atoms
The formal charge
on K, Cl, and O atoms
Potassium
(K) atom
010000( 1 – 0 – 0 / 2 ) = + 1
Central Chlorine
(Cl) atom
070007( 7 – 0 – 7 / 2 ) = 0
Outer  one oxygen
(O) atom
060602( 6 – 6 – 2 / 2 ) = – 1
Outer  three
oxygen (O)
atom
060402( 6 – 4 – 2 / 2 ) = 0
Formal charge of KClO4 lewis structure, K = + 1, Cl = 0, 1 O = – 1, 3 O = 0

KClO4 lewis structure shape

The definite atomic arrangement in the molecule with closed packing forming a shape is called a molecular shape. Let us discuss the shape and geometry of KClO4.

The KClO4 lewis structure shows tetrahedral molecular shape and electron geometry. It consists of K+ cation forming a strong ionic bond with ClO4 polyatomic anion. The ClO4 anion shows a tetrahedral shape as its central Cl atoms get surrounded by 4 O atoms.

Hence, if we see the VSEPR theory module to confirm the shape of the KClO4 lewis structure, it says that the central atom having 4 outer atoms around it is in tetrahedral shape due to the AX4 generic formula.

KClO4 hybridization

The atomic orbital overlapping in a molecule forms a new hybrid orbital having the same energy as previous orbitals called hybridization. Take a look at the brief on KClO4 hybridization.

The KClO4 shows ‘sp3’ hybridization. It has a tetrahedral shape and geometry in accord with VSEPR theory. Thus it has steric number 4. The steric number for KClO4 is evaluated as = number of atoms bonding with central Cl atom + lone pairs on Cl atoms. Therefore, it has 4 + 0 = 4.

Here, it has the mixing and recasting of one ‘s’ and three ‘p’ atomic orbitals of the central Cl atom of KClO4. Thus it produces the new ‘sp3’ hybrid orbital of Cl atoms with equivalent energy as per before orbitals.

KClO4 lewis structure angle

The angle within the two exact immediate bonds in a molecule is called the bond angle of that molecule. Here, let us discuss some details about the KClO4 bond angle.

The KClO4 has a 109.5 – degree bond angle within its molecule. The central Cl atom form 4 Cl – O bonds with 4 outer O atoms and has tetrahedral geometry. Thus it forms an O – Cl – O bond angle of 109.5 degrees.

Properties of KClO4

The various properties of the KClO4 compound are given in the below table.

Properties Values
Molecular weight 138.55
Density 2.53 g/cu cm
Melting point 5250 C
Boiling point 600 °C
Properties of KClO4

KClO4 solubility

The capacity of a solute to get dissolve into water solvent is called its solubility. Let us discuss more details descriptions of KClO4 solubility in water.

The KClO4 compound is soluble in water. Both KClO4 and water are polar compounds. Thus like dissolves like is applicable on both due to which they both are soluble with each other. Also, it is composed of group 1st potassium metal elements which are always soluble in water.

How is KClO4 soluble in water?

When KClO4 is added to the water solution, it gets completely dissociates into the water as K+ and ClO4 ions. It undergoes a neutralization reaction with water and K+ joined with negative OH ion of water, while ClO4 non-metallic anion gets attached with positive H+ ion of water.

Thus, it forms a strong acid i.e. perchloric acid (HClO4), and a strong base i.e. potassium hydroxide (KOH) i.e.. The neutralization reaction of KClO4 with H2O is given below.

KClO4 (s) + H2O (l) → HClO4 (aq) + KOH (aq)

Is KClO4 solid or liquid?

The compound which has closed and definite packing of their atoms and are hard in nature are called solid compounds. Below we are discussing whether KClO4 is solid or liquid.

The KClO4 compound is solid in nature. It is an ionic compound having closed packing of K+ cation and ClO4 anion. Thus they are forming a solid crystalline rhombohedral structure. Also the ClO4 anion is a non-metallic polyatomic anion having covalently bonded atoms making KClO4 a solid compound.

Is KClO4 polar or nonpolar?

The unequal electron sharing and electronegativity difference between the atoms in a compound determine the polarity of the molecule. Let us see whether KClO4 is polar or non-polar.

The KClO4 is a polar molecule. It is an ionic compound and already has a positive and negative charge on it making the dipoles on the KClO4 molecule. It has unequal electron sharing between the K+ cation and ClO4 anion. Also, the electron cloud generates on ClO4 anion while K+ cation has zero electrons.

Is KClO4 acid or base or salt?

The acid and base are proton donors and acceptors while salt forms due to acid – base neutral reaction. Take a look at brief details on whether KClO4 is an acid, base, or salt.

The KClO4 is salt in nature. It is the salt of perchloric acid and produces due to the neutralization reaction between a strong acid and a strong base. It is a neutral molecule having a pH value of 7. Thus, KClO4 does not show any acidic or basic character but shows characteristics of the salt molecule.

Is KClO4 electrolyte?

The compounds get dissociate in water and are able to electrical conduction and are known as electrolytes. Below we are discussing the KClO4 compound’s electrolytic nature.

The KClO4 compound can act as an electrolyte. As it is completely dissociated in water as K+ and ClO4 ions, thus these ions of KClO4 can move freely in a water solvent. Hence on the application of external electric current KClO4 can conduct electricity in water solution and shows its electrolytic character.

Is KClO4 ionic or covalent?

The strong ionic character is due to the electrostatic force of attraction while the sigma bond shows a covalent character. Let us discuss whether KClO4 is an ionic or covalent.

KClO4 is an ionic compound. The K+ cation and ClO4 anion gets attached to each other due to the electrostatic force of attraction between them. Thus it can get easily ionized. The ClO4 ion has covalent bonding within all Cl and O atoms, still, it shows ionic nature due to the presence of K+ cation with it.

Conclusion:

The KClO4 lewis structure has 32 valence electrons and 12 lone pair electrons. It has a complete octet of Cl and 4 O atoms. It has a formal charge of +1 on K, -1 on 1 O while zero on 3 O and central Cl atoms. It has a tetrahedral shape, sp3 hybridization, and a 109.5 – degree bond angle. It is a solid polar ionic salt compound that is soluble in water and acts as an electrolyte.

Dr. Shruti Ramteke

Hello everyone I am Dr. Shruti M Ramteke, i did my Ph.D in chemistry. I have five years of teaching experience for 11-12 standard, B,Sc and MSc in chemistry subject. I have published total five research articles during Ph.D on my research work and i have fellowship from UGC for my Ph.D. My Masters with specilization Inorganic chemistry and my graduation with chemistry, zoology and environmental science subjects. thank You

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