KCL Lewis Structure: Drawings, Hybridization, Shape, Charges, Pairs


In this article we are going to discuss about how to draw KCl Lewis structure, resonance, shape, formal charge, angle, octet rule and lone pair of KCl Lewis structure. Valence electron, hybridization, uses, stability and ionic nature of KCl is also studied.

KCl Lewis structure gives the information of a two-dimensional molecular composition of potassium and chlorine along with electron dots and bond formation. In Lewis structure, dots represent the valence electron of the atom and lines represents bonds between atoms.

How to draw KCl Lewis structure?

To draw KCl Lewis structure followed by three steps:

Step 1: Count the available valence electron

In the periodic table, chlorine and potassium are classified as halogen present in the 17th group and alkaline metal present in the first group respectively.

Outermost shell of potassium contains one electron therefore electron dot structure of potassium is represented by K with one dot whereas, outermost shell of chlorine contains seven electron therefore electron dot structure of chlorine is written as Cl with seven dots.

Total available valence electrons=1+7=8

Lewis dot structure of potassium from wikimedia commons and chlorine from wikedia commons

Step 2: The metal atom donates electron while the nonmetal atom accept them in ionic compound.

In KCl, potassium is the metal which donate one electron and forms potassium cation, whereas chlorine is the non-metal which accept one electron and forms chloride anion.

Formation of potassium cation
Formation of chloride anion

Step 3: Combining two opposite charges, to get KCl Lewis structure.  

To achieve stability, potassium atom donate one electron and chlorine atom receives one electron as a result both ions have noble gas electron configuration with a full valence shell. Therefore KCl Lewis structure can be represented as K+ and Cl- with eight dots.

KCl lewis structure resonance:

A multiple Lewis structure describe the delocalization of electron in a molecule which is called resonance structure. In KCl Lewis structure, due to the absence of double bond it is not possible to write resonance structure for this molecule.

KCl Lewis structure shape:

KCl is an ionic compound. There is no bonding between K and Cl, there is complete transfer of the electrons within the molecule. Thus KCl Lewis structure does not have any shape.

KCl Lewis structure formal charge:

Formal charge is the charge assigned to an atom such that electrons are equally shared between the atoms in a molecule.

Formal charge=[Total number of valence electron in free state]-{[total number of lone pair electron] + 1/2[total number of bonding electron]}

For potassium:

Number of valence electron in potassium =1

Total number of lone pair electron = 0

Total number of bonding electron = 0

Formal charge of potassium= 1-{0+1/2(0)}

                                         = +1

Formula charge on potassium atom in potassium chloride Lewis structure is +1

For chlorine:

Number of valence electron in chlorine = 7

Total number of lone pair electron in chlorine= 8

Total number of bonding electron = 0

Formal Charge of chlorine=7-{8+1/2(0)}

                                   =-1

The chlorine atom in potassium chloride Lewis structure has a formal charge of -1.

KCl Lewis structure angle:

Lewis structure of KCl molecule does not have any bond angle as there is no bond present within the molecule as it is originally an ionic compound with the presence of metal and non-metal.

KCl Lewis structure octet rule:

Atoms lose, share or gain electrons in order to have an octet electronic configuration in their outermost valence shell to attain the stability.

In KCl Lewis structure to attain stability, potassium donates one valence electron as a result positive charge for potassium whereas chlorine atom accepts it so chlorine has eight electron as a result negative charge for chlorine.

KCl Lewis structure lone pair:

Lone pair electron are a pair of electrons that are not involved in bonding.

Lone pair electron of potassium in KCl Lewis structure = 0

Lone pair electron of chlorine in KCl Lewis structure = 4

KCl valence electron:

Electron present in the outermost shell of the element determines the valency of an atom.

Electronic configuration of potassium is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Outermost electron present in the potassium is 1

Electronic configuration of chlorine is 1s22s22p63s23p5

Outermost electron present in the chlorine is 7

Therefore, the total number of valence electron of KCl is 1+7=8

KCl hybridization:

Number of hybridization in KCL determines the KCl molecular hybridization.

Number of hybridization in KCL = Number of K-Cl bond + lone pair on the central chlorine atom

                                               =1+3

                                               =4

Number of hybridization in KCl molecule is four therefore hybridization is sp3. The potassium and chlorine atom have s and p orbital in their outermost shell. In KCl molecular orbital, one s and three p orbital join together to form four new sp3 hybridization

KCl uses:

  1. Potassium chloride has got application in industries such as formation of potassium metal, glass manufacturing, soap manufacturing and used as flux in oxy-fuel welding
  2. Potassium chloride is also being used in curing low blood pressure conditions and in calibration of radiation monitoring equipment.
  3. Potassium chloride is used in fertilizer which enriches soil for the growth of plant.
  4. Potassium chloride is also used as food additives.

Is KCl is ionic or covalent?

KCl is ionic in nature because electronegativity value of chlorine is 3.16 and electronegativity value of potassium is 0.82, the difference between electronegativity of potassium and chlorine in KCL molecule is 2.34 greater than 2.1 required for the formation of ionic bond.

Due to the large electronegativity difference, oppositely charged ions of potassium and chlorine attract each other and forms a chemical bond resulting in the formation of KCl molecule through ionic interaction.

Is KCl stable?

Yes KCl is a stable ionic compound because the stability of ionic compounds depends on how easily one atom can gain electrons in a compound and another atom can lose electrons. Here, potassium and chlorine atom shows significant difference in their electronegativity value therefore potassium atom easily lose one electron and forms K+ ion while chlorine atom easily gain one  electron to form Cl ion.

Summary

In this article we briefly understood the concept of KCl Lewis structure with Lewis dot structure followed by resonance, shape, formal charge, angle, octet rule and valence electron. Applications of KCl, hybridization, ionic nature of KCl and stability is also being described.

Supriya Upadhya

Hi....I am Supriya Upadhya, a Post Graduate in Organic chemistry with good understanding of Chemistry concepts and worked as Junior research fellow in synthesis of anti cancer agent. Also worked on Anti-Microbial Polymer synthesis as part of Post graduate thesis. Linkedin profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/supriya-upadhya-1223a716a/

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