This article will study isomerase enzyme, their structures, and some of their examples with facts.
An isomerase enzyme belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze reactions, including a molecule’s structural rearrangement. In simple words, isomerase is a catalytic enzyme that converts its substrate to an isomeric version. Below are some Isomerase enzyme examples with facts to better understand the topic.
What is an isomerase enzyme?
An isomerase enzyme belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze reactions, including a molecule’s structural rearrangement. In simple words, isomerase is a catalytic enzyme that converts its substrate to an isomeric version.
This is how such a reaction looks in particular: A–B → B–A
Isomerases are found in just about all living beings’ metabolisms and genomes. It catalyzes up to 4 percent of biochemical reactions inactive center metabolism in living beings, particularly carbohydrate metabolism. So, various biological processes, such as glucose metabolism and glycolysis, are catalyzed by isomerases.
Due to its use in manufacturing high-fructose corn syrup, glucose isomerase is also a major industrial enzyme. It also plays a role in manufacturing fructose, which is used as a substitute for refined sugar by isomerizing glucose to fructose. It transforms one isomer into the other, resulting in a product that has a similar molecular formula but a distinct physical structure.
The isomerization energy is the variation in energy among isomers that influences the predominance of each isomer in nature. On the other hand, isomerases can speed up reactions by decreasing isomerization energy.
Isomerase Enzyme Structure
Isomerases have a structure that is based on a connection of protein functions. The positioning of these isomerase enzymes is determined by the characteristics they exhibit. According to the EC Number categorization, isomerases are divided into subclasses. Isomerase has a crystal structure when it comes to glucose structure.
The metal ions Mg2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, are implicated in the isomerase function, and most of the crystal structures of GI are linked to them. On the other hand, some GI crystal formations have been found to include biologically unrelated metal ions in their active regions.
It enables one to evaluate fundamental issues concerning the link between enzyme activity and their evolutionary history by combining sequence, phylogeny, chemical, structural and mechanical information.
Isomerase Enzyme Examples
To better understand the topic, below are some Isomerase enzyme examples with facts.
Photoisomerase is any of one collection of enzymes that catalyze the isomerization of photo-pigments in the biological process. A photoisomerase is a protein in the eye that permits retinal clarity through its enzyme. It is required for the eyes to function effectively.
2. Phosphohexose isomerase
Glucose phosphate isomerase is another name for phosphohexose isomerase. In the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, this type of enzyme converts the isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate.
Read more about Example of Coenzyme
3. Chalcone isomerase
Chalcone isomerase enzyme is a member of the isomerase family, particularly the intramolecular lyases subclass. The chemical reaction is catalyzed by chalcone isomerase, which is an enzyme. Chalcone polymerase catalyzes the formation of 2′,4,4′, and 6′-tetrahydroxychalcone, the first dedicated enzyme in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.
4. Phosphoglucose isomerase
Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is another term for phosphoglucose isomerase (GPI). This protein or enzyme serves various purposes within and without the cell.
This protein is responsible for glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway in the cytoplasm, and the gluconeogenesis process.
5. Beta-carotene isomerase
Beta-carotene isomerase, also known as beta-carotene 9-cis-all-trans isomerase, is an enzyme that breaks down beta-carotene. This enzyme is involved in the production of strigolactones and is present in a pathway.
6. Triosephosphate isomerase
Triose-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the bidirectional isomerization of the dihydroxyacetone phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate isomers of the triose phosphate. It is essential for the efficient production of energy and plays an integral role in glycolysis.
7. Alanine racemase
An alanine racemase is a catalyzing enzyme for a chemical process. This enzyme is a member of the isomerase family, particularly racemases and epimerases that operate on amino acids and other derivatives.
8. Bisphosphoglycerate mutase
Bisphosphoglycerate mutase is important in placental cells and erythrocyte-specific enzymes. It’s a part of the isomerase family.
9. Linoleate isomerase
A linoleate isomerase is an enzyme responsible for a chemical process and belongs to the isomerase family. This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of linoleic acid.
10. Maleate isomerase
Maleate isomerase, also known as maleate cis-trans isomerase, is a bacterial member of the Glu racemase superfamily. It is a necessary enzyme in the final step of the nicotinic acid metabolic breakdown pathway.
11. Lysolecithin acylmutase
An enzyme called lysolecithin acylmutase stimulates the chemical reaction. This enzyme is a member of the isomerase family, notably those intramolecular transferases that shift acyl groups.
12. Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase
The protein enzyme ribose-5-phosphate isomerase encoded by the RPIA gene catalyzes the transfer of ribose-5-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate. The Calvin cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway rely on it for biological metabolism.
13. Precorrin- 8x methylmutase
The enzyme precorrin-8X methylmutase stimulates the chemical reaction. This enzyme belongs to the isomerase family, which includes intramolecular transferases that transfer various groups. In aerobic bacteria, this enzyme plays a key role in the biosynthetic pathway to vitamin B12.
14. Farnesol 2-isomerase
A farnesol 2-isomerase is an isomerase family of enzymes catalyzes a chemical process.
15. Lycopene epsilon cyclase
The isomerase enzyme lycopene epsilon-cyclase induces the chemical process. Both the alpha and beta carotene biosynthesis pathways are affected by this enzyme.
16. Methionine racemase
An isomerase enzyme called methionine racemase stimulates the chemical change. Pyridoxal phosphate is the only cofactor used in the chemical reaction.