The substances show the magnetic characteristic depending on the availability of unpaired electrons. In this article, we shall discuss the magnetic properties of aluminum.
The aluminum is not a magnet at normal temperature or normal conditions. Well, it can show some magnetic characteristics in an external magnetic field. It is paramagnetic, showing weak magnetic behavior compared to the ferromagnetic material.
The electronic configuration of Al is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p1. Let us discuss the magnetic properties of aluminum, why it is not a magnet, and how we can make a magnet out of Al further in this topic.
Why aluminum is not magnetic?
The material’s response in a magnetic field depends upon the total number of free electrons composing the material. Let us see why aluminum does not show these characteristics.
Aluminum is not magnetic because it has only one unpaired electron in the 3p orbital and is not a denser element. The electrons in the aluminum matter are aligned randomly and not in a specific direction making magnetism is impossible in aluminum.
These electrons can be aligned in the same direction when an external magnetic field is placed in a region close to aluminum, thus aligning the unpaired electrons in the direction of an electric field that makes aluminum a paramagnet.
Is any type of aluminum magnetic?
Different matters are used to produce different magnetic with different capacities of building magnetic strength. Let us see whether aluminum is used to make any magnet.
There are a few types of customized aluminum magnets like Alinco or aluminum coated magnets made by mixing two or more metals. Alnico is a permanent magnet made up of Al, nickel, and cobalt by sintering or casting.
The proportion of Al, Ni, and Co used varies depending upon the grade of the magnet.
Aluminum Paramagnetic Properties
There are several paramagnetic properties of aluminum. Let us list out some properties of aluminum to understand its magnetism clearly.
- An unpaired electron of Aluminum shows the attraction toward other electrons to fill its orbit.
- Aluminum lacks magnetic behavior due to the high Fermi velocity of electrons.
- Aluminium atoms have a permanent dipole moment if the net dipole moment becomes zero.
- Magnetization is inversely related to Aluminium temperature.
Aluminum Magnetic Permeability
The magnetic permeability of aluminum supports the formation of the magnetic field inside the Al matter. Let us discuss the aluminum magnetic permeability in detail.
Aluminum magnetic permeability tells us about the intensity of the magnetic field generated inside its matter due to the externally applied field. It is the ratio of magnetic flux density to the magnetizing force. The relative permeability of aluminum is greater than 1.
Aluminum magnetic permeability is calculated using the formula: m = B/H; here, m is permeability, B is magnetic flux density, and H is a magnetizing force. The magnetic field lines are denser inside the aluminum matter. The magnetization of Al decreases with rising temperature.
Aluminum Magnetic Susceptibility
The magnetic susceptibility of Al determines the ratio of magnetization of Al in the given external field. Let us discuss the magnetic susceptibility of aluminum.
The magnetic susceptibility of aluminum is 2.2. Since aluminum is paramagnetic, its magnetic susceptibility is inversely related to the absolute temperature obeying Curie’s law. The magnetic susceptibility of aluminum is positive and small.
The magnetic susceptibility of aluminum is a ratio of magnetization and the magnetic field intensity given by the expression: c = M/H, where c is a magnetic susceptibility, M is a magnetization, and H is the magnetic field intensity.
How to make Aluminum Magnetic?
There are different methods applied to make the magnet of aluminum. Let us discuss the methods used to make aluminum magnetic.
|Rubbing||Upon rubbing aluminum across the magnet, the unpaired electrons align in the direction of the magnetic field of a magnet intensifying the magnetic strength of the aluminum.|
|Tapping||Tapping a magnet on aluminum transfers/migrates some magnetic dipole to the aluminum improving its response towards the magnets.|
|Placing powerful magnet||The powerful magnet has the capacity to produce a strong magnetic field that helps to orient electrons in aluminum when the magnetic flux penetrates through the aluminum matter.|
|Heating in a magnetic field||The heat energy supplied to the aluminum increases the agility/mobility of free electrons, and the magnetic flux imposing the force on these electrons tends to align them in the direction of a field.|
Is cast aluminum magnetic?
The aluminum cast is a product obtained after melting and molding the aluminum. Let us discuss whether the aluminum cast is magnetic or not.
The cast aluminum is not magnetic because casting is done without a magnetic field; thus, the aluminum is not magnetized under normal circumstances.
Is galvanized aluminum magnetic?
The aluminum coated with zinc is called galvanized aluminum. Let us see whether galvanized aluminum becomes magnetic or not.
The galvanized aluminum is not magnetic because neither aluminum nor zinc contributes to magnetizing the galvanized aluminum. Zinc is paramagnetic same as aluminum.
Is anodized aluminum magnetic?
The anodized aluminum is formed when the top layer of aluminum is oxidized. Let us ponder on whether anodized aluminum is magnetic.
The anodized aluminum is not magnetic because oxygen is also paramagnetic and retains magnetic properties only in the presence of a magnetic field.
We can conclude from this article that aluminum is not magnetic under normal conditions. It shows partly magnetic behavior in the presence of a magnetic field, so it is a paramagnet. It is mainly due to the availability of an unpaired electron of Al. Different methods are applied to make the Al magnetic.