In this article, we are going to see what is an ionic bond, its characteristics, facts along with some ionic bond examples in detail.
When the attractive force binds unlike ions together then this is known as an ionic bond. An ionic bond is also termed an electrovalent bond. Compounds having this type of bonding are called ionic compounds. Some examples are given as follows.
- Sodium Chloride NaCl
- Sodium Bromide NaBr
- Sodium Fluoride NaF
- Potassium Chloride KCl
- Potassium Iodide KI
- Potassium Bromide KBr
- Potassium Fluoride KF
- Lithium Iodide LiI
- Lithium Oxide Li2O
- Calcium oxide CaO
Some elements of the periodic table could acquire a noble gas configuration by losing or gaining electrons. Those elements that lose an electron and acquire a positive charge are called cations, while those that gain an electron and acquire a negative charge are called anions.
AB A+ + B– A is a cation with a positive charge and B is an anion with a negative charge.
- An ionic bond is also termed an electrovalent bond.
- A strong electrostatic force of attraction held Positive and Negative ions together.
- Ionic compounds are hard and brittle.
- Usually have e high melting point.
- In the solid-state ionic compounds is a bad conductor of electricity while they are a good conductor of electricity when melted or dissolved in solvents.
- Ionic compounds are soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in non-polar solvents.
- Ionic bond forms between metal and non-metal.
Ionic Bond Examples
Sodium Chloride NaCl
Sodium Chloride, Sodium atom has 1 valence electron and Chlorine atom has 7 valence electrons. Chlorine atom need one electron to complete its octet. Na atom loses its electron and acquires a positive charge while Chlorine atom gains an electron and acquires a negative charge. Hence Na and Cl form an ionic bond.
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Sodium Bromide NaBr
In Sodium Bromide, the Sodium atom has one electron in its valence shell and the Bromine atom has 7 electrons. Na loses one electron which is gained by Br to complete its octet. Ionic compound NaBr is formed.
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Sodium Fluoride NaF
In Sodium Fluoride NaF, to complete octet state Fluorine atom need only 1 electron, which is given by the sodium atom. Na acquires positive [Na]+and F acquire negative charge [F]–, forming an ionic bond.
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Potassium Chloride KCl
In Potassium Chloride KCl, the Potassium atom has one electron in its valence shell and the Chlorine atom has seven electrons. Chlorine atom need one electron to complete its octet state. K loses its electron and becomes positively charged by gaining this electron Cl becomes negatively charged. The Formation Ionic bond takes place between K and Cl.
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Potassium Iodide KI
In Potassium Iodide KI, the Iodine atom has seven valence electrons in its valence shell to get its octet state complete, it requires one electron. Potassium loses one electron, acquires a positive charge while iodine takes this electron and acquires a negative charge forming an ionic bond.
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Potassium Bromide KBr
In Potassium Bromide KBr, Potassium has 1 electron in its valence shell whereas Bromine has seven electrons. Hence K loses its electron becomes K+ and Br gains this electron becomes Br–. The ionic bond formed between K and Br.
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Potassium Fluoride KF
In Potassium Fluoride KF, the Fluorine atom has seven electrons and the Potassium atom has one electron in its valence shell. To get a stable configuration Fluorine needed one electron. Potassium transfers its valence electron to Fluorine forming an ionic bond.
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Lithium Iodide LiI
In this ionic compound, the Iodine atom has seven electrons in its valence shell to complete its stable electronic configuration it requires one electron. Lithium has a valency of one electron. Li loses its electron acquires a positive charge and by gaining of electron I acquire a negative charge.
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Lithium Oxide Li2O
In Lithium Oxide Li2O, Each Lithium has one electron in its outermost shell and oxygen has six electrons. To attain an octet state oxygen need two electrons. Both lithium atoms lose electrons becomes positively charged while oxygen gains those electrons and becomes negatively charged. The ionic bond formed.
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Calcium Oxide CaO
In Calcium oxide, Calcium has two valence electrons while oxygen has six valence electrons in its valence shell. To complete its octet oxygen requires two more electrons. Calcium loses its electrons and acquires +2 charge and oxygen gains those electrons, acquires 2- charge.
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Frequently Asked Questions:
Question: Is CaCl2 an ionic compound?
Answer: The CaCl2 is an ionic compound,
In CaCl2, Calcium has two valence electrons and each Chlorine has one electron. Ca loses both the electrons which are gained by each Cl and complete its octet. Calcium acquires +2 while each Chlorine acquires -1 charged. Due to this unlike charges ionic bond formed in the CaCl2 compound.
Question: What is an ionic bond?
Answer: Ionic bond is defined as
When the attractive force binds unlike ions together then this is known as an ionic bond. An ionic bond is also termed an electrovalent bond.
Question: What are the differences between ionic and covalent bonds?
Answer: The difference between ionic and covalent bonds :
|Ionic bond||Covalent bond|
|When the attractive force binds unlike ions together then this is known as an ionic bond.||When two atoms get stabilized by sharing of electrons then this is known as a covalent bond.|
|Forms between electropositive and electronegative atoms.||Forms between the same or different atoms.|
|It is a non-directional bond.||It is a directional bond.|
|Has high melting and boiling points.||Has low melting and boiling points.|
|Ionic compounds are soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in non-polar solvents.||Covalent compounds are insoluble in polar solvents and soluble in non-polar solvents.|