Hydrolases are a group of enzymes which serve as a biological catalyst and cleave chemical bonds with the use of water (hydrolysis). Here we are going to discuss some hydrolase enzyme examples in brief.
Here we mention some most common hydrolase enzyme examples, these are –
Esterases are one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples. Through hydrolysis process esterases breaks an ester molecule into acid and alcohol. There are several kind of estarse are present such as acetyl xylan esterase, feruloyl esterases, etc. These are mostly used for industrial purposes. Esterases are also known as carboxyl ester hydrolases.
Nucleases are one of the most common hydrolase enzymes, catalyses hydrolysis. It is able to break the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotides of a nucleic acid chain. Nucleases are one of the most significant enzymes which are used in DNA repair mechanisms in the body of an organism. It is also popular for its usage in molecular biotechnology specifically for its role in molecular cloning.
Phosphodiesterases are a group of hydrolase enzyme examples. It is very significant for breaking the phosphodiester bond between cyclic nucleotides. Phospholipases C and D, autotaxin, sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, DNases, RNases, and restriction endonucleases are the most popular phosphodiesterase hydrolase enzyme examples.
Lipase is also one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples, used for breaking chemical bonds between fat molecules. It breaks complex fat molecules like triglycerides, diglycetols into fatty acid and glycerols. It is involved in most biological functions of cells like cell signalling. It is also involved in digestion of fat materials within the body.
Triglyceride + H2O → fatty acid + diacylglycerol
Phosphatase is a hydrolase enzyme that typically works on breaking chemical bonds of phosphate groups or phosphoric acid into a phosphate ion and alcohol. It plays an important role in cellular biology especially in cellular regulation and cell signalling procedure.
Diphosphate + H2O → phosphate ion + alcohol
DNA glycosylase is an important hydrolase enzyme group in base excision repair mechanism. This enzyme is first discovered in bacterial cells. These enzymes work on DNA bases, removing damaged bases and replacing them. Uracil DNA glycosylase or UDG revests mutation in DNA. There are several Uracil-DNA glycosylase like UNG, SMUG1, TDG, and MBD4, which are found in mammalian cells.
Protease is one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples, involving in protein metabolism procedures. This enzyme works on protein substances, stimulates hydrolysis and by breaking chemical bonds forming smaller polypeptides or amino acid units. Beside protein digestion it also takes part in different cell signaling mechanisms. The activity of protease enzymes inhibited by protease inhibitors.
Protease enzyme reaction from Wikimedia Commons
Peptide lyases or Asparagine peptide lyase is also one of the protease hydrolase enzyme examples, known for its elimination reactions. It breaks peptide bonds by nucleophilic elimination reactions.
Acid anhydride hydrolases
Acid anhydride hydrolases is also one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples, works on anhydride bonds.
Helicase is one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples present in every eukaryotic cell. It stimulates hydrolysis of ATP molecules to separate nucleic acid strands. During DNA replication, transcription, translation, recombination, DNA repair, and ribosome biogenesis, helicase plays an important role in unwinding double stranded DNA so that another enzymes can read and work on it.
GTPase is a hydrolase enzyme that works on nucleotide guanosine triphosphate (GTP). In nucleic acid structure (DNA and RNA) the GTPase stimulates hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate and breaks it into Guanosine diphosphate, releasing energy. It helps in signal transduction pathways, protein biosynthesis processes, etc.
GTP → GDP + ATP (energy)
Phospholipases are groups of enzymes, one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples. It involves the hydrolysis of fat or lipid materials. It stimulates hydrolysis of phospholipids and breaks it into fatty acids and lipophilic substances.
Amylase is a hydrolase enzyme that typically stimulates hydrolysis of starch material and breaks it into simple sugars like Glucose. It plays an important role in digestion of starch in an organism and is also used economically in food industries.
Breaking of strach by hydrolase from Wikimedia Commons
Beta-Galactosidase is an important hydrolase enzyme example, involved with the digestion of glycosides. The enzyme breaks glucosidic bonds of β-galactosides by hydrolysis and converts it into monosaccharides.
Hyaluronidase is one of the most important hydrolase enzyme examples that typically stimulates breaking of hyaluronic acid. There are five hyaluronidases found in the human body such as HYAL1, HYAL2, HYAL3, HYAL4 and HYAL5.
Maltose is one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples that typically stimulates the hydrolysis of maltose. It breaks glycosidic bonds of maltose and converts into two Glucose molecules.
Just like maltase, invertase is also a hydrolase enzyme that breaks the glycosidic bonds of sucrose through hydrolysis and produces one fructose and one Glucose molecule.
Lactase is one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples that typically stimulates hydrolysis of lactose sugar. It breaks the glycosidic bonds of lactose and produces one galactose and Glucose molecule through hydrolysis.
Glucosidase is a hydrolase enzyme that typically stimulates hydrolysis of starch and glycogen molecules. It breaks the chemical bonds through hydrolysis and converts them into monomers.
Trehalase is one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples that typically stimulates hydrolysis of trehalose and converts it into glucose monomers.
Neuraminidase is a hydrolase enzyme that typically stimulates hydrolysis of neuraminic acids.
Pullulanase is a hydrolase enzyme which stimulates hydrolysis of pullulan.
Sucrase is a hydrolase enzyme that breaks the glycosidic bonds of sucrose through hydrolysis and converts it into one fructose and one glucose molecule.
Nitrilases is one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples that stimulates hydrolysis of nitriles and converts it into carboxylic acids and ammonia.
Pepsin is a hydrolase enzyme that stimulates hydrolysis of protein molecules and converts them into smaller peptide units.
Just like pepsin, typssin is another enzyme which stimulates hydrolysis of protein substances and converts it into smaller peptide units.
Just like trypsin, chymtrypsin is also one of the most common hydrolase enzyme examples, typically stimulates hydrolysis of the protein and polypeptides and breaks them into smaller peptide units.
Urease is one of the most important hydrolase enzyme examples typically associated with the breakdown of urea. It breaks the chemical bonds of urea and converts it into Carbon Dioxide and ammonia.
Aminopeptidases is a hydrolase enzyme which stimulates the hydrolysis of protein substances.
Serine endopeptidase is a hydrolase enzyme which stimulates the hydrolysis of peptide substances. It is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
Hydrolase enzyme examples from Wikimedia Commons
As a whole we can say that hydrolase enzymes are the catalyst, which stimulates hydrolysis to break chemical bonds between complex molecules, converting them into smaller units. Here we mention some most common hydrolase enzyme examples. Hope it will be helpful to you.