How Are Enzymes Produced: 9 Facts (Read This First!)


This article illustrate all around information on “How Are Enzymes Produced” with 9 facts in detail.

The enzymes act as catalysts which makes a chemical reaction happen more rapidly and also act as a proteins that can fold into a certain shape and allow them to react in a reversible way to facilitate some biochemical reaction.

How do cells produce enzymes?

There are different types of enzymes are present within a cell. Enzymes are a form of protein, thus every cell that contains DNA and translates the DNA into a protein will make enzymes. The process of DNA transcription and translation of mRNA is the result of a final product known as an enzyme. At the beginning of the enzyme production process, there is a requirement of DNA with properly arranged bases will go for transcription to form mRNA.

How are enzymes produced example from Wikipedia

It is necessary for one particular strand must be complementary to the DNA strand that gives proper instruction for the building of an enzyme .After the completion of transcription within a nucleus, mRNA will move out of the cell and start to translate into the ribosome.

The ribosomes use their anticodon one by one for the attachment of amino acids together for the complete formation of long chains of amino acids via the formation of the peptide bond. after the end of the process, it releases one long chain referred to as a polypeptide chain that will make one shape according to interactive bonds and finally form one desired protein which acts as catalysis known as an enzyme.

Where enzymes are produced?

The basic structure of enzymes is formed in ribosomes. The ribosomes are located near the nucleus, so the gene for protein synthesis can be easily read by the ribosomes. After an enzyme is synthesized it is modified in the Golgi body in the cytoplasm. The enzymes are globular proteins that are made up of polypeptide chains of amino acids.

The proteins are usually assembled in the cell. The most important organelle is ribosomes that can make and produce protein on rough endoplasmic reticulum via the process of transcription and translation. After the production of protein, it further goes for modification in the Golgi apparatus and then release out of the cell or works within the cell.

The site of synthesis depends on the fate of the enzyme. For example, the enzymes destined for the plasma membrane that synthesizes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum so can be exported via secretory vesicles through other organelles including the Golgi complex, or in the mitochondria if they are part of the complex of protein enzymes needed for cellular respiration.

Why enzymes are produced?

The enzymes act as catalysts which makes a chemical reaction happen more rapidly. The enzymes are generally proteins that can fold into a certain shape that allow them to react in a reversible way to facilitate some biochemical reaction. Without the enzyme, such biochemical reactions proceed at a very slow rate. It will take an excessively long time to create products that are important such as ATP.

How are enzymes produced example
Enzyme structure and function from Wikipedia

 It is very important for our body because, without them, processes like ATP generation, and cellular respiration could not occur. Enzymes help to lower the activation energy required for reactants to reach a definite transition state and releasing products where by allowing the reaction to proceed The catalysis effect of the enzyme is highly specific to certain reactions taking place in a certain environment.

The enzymes are very important for speed up chemical reactions, helping our bodies functions as well as initializing as a protein.

How are enzymes made from DNA?

The DNA has coded information for the production of specific protein. Here the question is that How are enzymes produced- that means, DNA can transfer this information to an RNA. It is necessary for one particular strand must be complementary to the DNA strand that gives proper instruction for the building of an enzyme.

It can transfer this information to an RNA. After the completion of transcription within a nucleus, mRNA will move out of the cell and start to translate into the ribosome.The RNA with the help of ribosomes strings together amino acids which in a particular sequence  form a particular protein. The ribosomes use their anticodon one by one for the attachment of amino acids together for the complete formation of long chains of amino acids via the formation of the peptide bond finally that protein act as an enzyme.

Enzyme or protein synthesis from Wikipedia

How are enzymes produced by fermentation?

There are mainly two methods used for enzyme production by fermentation. The first is submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation. Most large industries are used such a method for the large production of enzymes.

There are different microbial enzymes are used like a different strain of bacteria, fungi, and yeast for the production of the enzyme. The fermentation process is mainly working for the conversion of the compound into another useful product by microbes.

How are enzymes produced example
Bioreactor for fermentation
Source:Wikipedia

Are enzymes produced by bacteria?

Yes, bacteria have the ability to secret enzymes. It is a useful source of enzymes. Some of the bacteria within soil secret enzymes that help in the decomposition of various organic and inorganic components and make nutrients available for the plants and also the microbes. The bacterial enzymes play a very important role to act as a catalysis for the conversion of the substrate into the product in a lesser time.

The bacterial enzyme proteolysis means to degrade the peptide bond between amino acids such as  phenylalanine, tryptophan etc. Bacterial enzymes have a different like, they act advantages stress tolerance including resistance to temperature, pH, salinity as well as antibiotics.

There are different types of enzymes including lipase, amylase, xylanase, cellulase, lactase, etc produced by bacteria. Some of the bacillus subtilis, Thermus aquaticus, Serrata, and Escherichia coli are the most common example of bacteria that can produce useful enzymes.

Are enzymes produced by plants?

Yes, Plant can produce enzymes. Plant enzymes are just like microbial or animal enzymes. They are all proteins, polymers of amino acids that are coded for the DNA system. Such an enzyme act as a natural catalyst for different metabolical reactions inside plants that enhance the rate of reaction without being consumed in biological processes.

The plant enzymes are located in all the organelles of any cell be it a plant or animal. There are plant-derived enzymes including papain, bromelain, amylase, lipoxygenase, invertase, ficin, etc. Such enzymes play a very important role in food industrial production, for medicinal purposes, industrial uses, and many more.

Are enzymes produced by fungi?

Yes, there are different types of enzymes produced by the strain of fungus including pectinase, amylase, cellulases, beta fructofuranosidase, glycosyl hydrolases, mannanase, and many more. The most common species of fungi that can release enzymes are Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, etc.

The fungi have many enzymes s that enable the breakdown or metabolism of some simple and complex carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and can produce necessary energy. Fungi can also break down some decomposing tissues by enabling the constituents to be recycled into the environment by the enzymes.

Are enzymes produced by animals?

Yes, there are different types of enzymes produced by animals including phytase, amylase, cellulase, xylanase, maltase, trypsin, pepsin, lipase, protease and many more. Such enzymes have varied applications in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, for the improvement of protein digestibility, medical adjuvants, etc.

How are enzymes produced example
Digestive enzyme from Wikipedia

Conclusion

The polypeptide chain that will make one shape according to interactive bonds,simply a process of DNA transcription and translation of mRNA is the result of a final product which acts as catalysis known as an enzyme.

Bhairavi Rathord

Hello, I am Bhairavi Rathod, I have completed my Master's in Biotechnology and qualified ICAR NET 2021 in Agricultural Biotechnology. My area of specialization is Integrated Biotechnology. I have the experience to teach and write very complex things in a simple way for learners. My LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/bhairavi-rathod-806993130

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