Hio4 Lewis Structure, Characteristics:17 Facts You Should Know

The structure, bonds, and hybridization of the hio4 lewis structure are the main topics of this article. It also explains that the hio4 lewis structure has a variety of uses and gives immense deep knowledge regardinghio4 lewis structure and properties.

Hio4 lewis structure is the explanation of  Iodic acid, also known as periodic acid, is an iodine oxoacid with the chemical formula Hio4. The carbon-carbon bonds in sugar are broken by this reagent known as periodic acid (Hio4) through oxidation. 

The vicinal diols in carbohydrates are attacked by periodic acid, which oxidizes these groups to produce carbonyl compounds.

How to draw the Hio4 lewis structure?

The bonding between a molecule’s atoms and any potential lone pairs of electrons is depicted in Lewis structures, sometimes referred to as electron-dot or electron-dot diagrams.

The following steps are involved in drawing of hio4 lewis structure.

Step:1

Count the total number of valence electrons first. One valence electron characterizes the H atom (group 1), seven characterize the I atom (group 17), and six characterize the O atoms (group 16). 

1 + 7 + 4(6) = 32 are the total number of valence electrons.

Step:2

Deduct two electrons from each skeletal structure bond. Ten of the 32 valence electrons in this configuration are distributed among the five bonds. 

22 valence electrons are still up for assigning to each atom in the hio4 lewis structure

Step:3

The remaining valence electrons are assigned to the other O atom, completing the octets for the terminal O atoms. The final Lewis structure creates double bonds between the Iodine atom and terminal Oxygen atoms because the Iodine atom does not yet have a full octet.

hio4 lewis structure
Hio4 lewis structure

Hio4 lewis structure resonance

Hio4 is a periodic acid and has a maximum no. of oxidation state is +7 of iodine in the hio4 lewis structure.

It shows a great resonating structure and is an important reagent in organic chemistry and is commonly used in the oxidation of glycol in which poly(-OH) groups are used.

hio4 lewis structure
Hio4 lewis structure resonance

Hio4 lewis structure shape

Hio4 lewis structure can occur in two different forms, orthoperiodic acid and form of metaperiodic acids, just like other periodates. We can draw the structure of ortho periodic acid and metaperiodic acid as follows:

hio4 lewis structure
Hio4 lewis structure shape

The hio4 lewis structure has Tetrahedral in shape with a bond angle of 109.8.

Hio4 lewis structure formal charge

The formal charge is the charge occupied by the difference between the valence electrons of a neutral atom that are present in the free state and electrons that are assigned during the formation of the lewis structure. 

In the Hio4 lewis structure, total valence electrons are 32 and for calculating formal charge we use a formula.

Formal charge= v-l-b/2

v= valence electron on a free atom

l= lone pair electrons in bonding atoms 

b= bond pairs of electrons

Therefore formal charge on I=+3, 3O=-1, thus formal charge on Hio4 = zero.

Hio4 lewis structure angle

In the hio4 lewis structure, there is the presence of two forms of periodic acid, ortho and meta, which will lead to the formation of tetrahedral and octahedron structures.

The hio4 lewis structure has Tetrahedral in shape with a bond angle of 109.8 degrees, The angle of given molecules is not exactly 109 degrees and 90 or 180 degrees which will not exact angle due to much repulsion in the molecules because of the intermolecular force of attraction in the hio4 lewis structure.

Hio4 lewis structure octet rule

The hio4 lewis structure consists of one iodine and 4 oxygen and 1 hydrogen atoms. They are arranged so that iodine is the most electronegative atom present in the centre and all the oxygen atoms lie around it. 

Thus the central atom completely satisfied the octet rule and all the 3 oxygen atoms which form a double bond with iodine also satisfied the octet rule. This will show that the hio4 lewis structure follows the octet rule.

Hio4 lewis structure lone pairs

Hio4 lewis structure has 8 lone pair electrons, all the lone pairs are present on the oxygen atom and satisfied the octet rule. Thus out of 4 oxygen atoms, three are formed a double bond with Iodine to form a stable lewis structure. 

One oxygen atom forms the single bond of iodine. Thus the total of free electrons is 16 in number.

Hio4 valence electrons

A valence electron is an electron linked with an atom in the outer shell. These outer shell electrons participate in a chemical reaction for the formation of bonds which is covalently bonded or we can say that shared pair of electrons between atoms.

Hio4 lewis structure consists of a total of 32 valence electrons out of which iodine has seven valence electrons and four oxygen has 24 valence electrons and hydrogen has one valence electron.

Iodine= 7 (belongs to group 17)

Oxygen= 4*6 =24 (belongs to group 16)

Hydrogen= 1 (belongs to group 1)

Total valence electron= 32.

Hio4 hybridization

The idea of combining two atomic orbitals to create a new form of hybridized orbitals This mixing often helps in the creation of hybrid orbitals with completely different energies, and geometries.

Iodine is the central atom in the hio4 lewis structure which consist of 7 valence electrons. Hybridization of central atom iodine = 1/2 (no. of monovalent atom + valence electron of the central atom).

Hydrogen is the monovalent atom and Group no of Iodine is 17 and that of oxygen is 16. So Hybridization of I in the hio4 is 7+1/2 = 4  which denotes sp3 according to VSEPR theory & it is Tetrahedral in shape with a bond angle of 109.8.

Iodine is double bonded to three oxygen atoms and single-bonded to the hydroxyl group.

Hio4 solubility

Solubility is the creation of a new bonding between solutes and solvent molecules. The hio4 is a periodic acid and being an oxo acid it is soluble in water and also soluble in the -OH group. 

Is Hio4 soluble in water?

Yes, Hio4 is soluble in water, periodic acid has the chemical formula HIO4 and is a white water-soluble solid. Its stability contrasts with the instability of chloric and bromic acids.

Periodic acid contains iodine in the oxidation state +7 and is one of the stable halogen oxo-acids.

Is hio4 a strong acid?

Periodic acid which is also called oxo-acid considered powerful acid but a comparison of it with other oxo acids makes it less acidic.

Why is hio4 a strong acid?

The hio4 lewis structure consists of iodine that belongs to the halogen family and halogen is the most electronegative element in the periodic table.

As we go down in the group the electronegativity will decrease due to the increase in size but still, they behave as acidic. Thus due to the presence of electronegative elements the periodic acid behaves as acid.

How is hio4 a strong acid?

If considered in group 17  the acidic strength increases as electronegativity increases. In the case of hio4 which belongs to oxo acids, Oxygen is more electronegative and pulls electrons toward itself making the molecule acidic.

Is hio4 stronger than hbro4?

No, hbro4 is the strongest acid than hio4 due to being more prone to dissociation energy in the case of hio4.

Why is hio4 less strong than hbro4?

The hio4 lewis structure is less acidic than hbro4 due to electronegativity, as bromine is more electronegative than iodine which strongly attracts the electrons toward itself and makes less electron density on the oxygen atom or hydrogen atom.

So mere efficiently the pull of electron more the acidic strength.

How is hio4 less acidic than hbro4?

If we see Hio4 and hbro4 structures both contain the acidic protons associated with the oxygen atom and the strength of the o-h bond in both cases is equal which never affected the acidic properties. 

Thus only one factor that affects the acidity of the molecules is the electronegative atom that molecules.

Is hio4 an oxidising agent?

Yes, hio4 is the strongest oxidising agent and its role in oxidized many chemical reactions that are linked to the many diols or glycols.

Why is hio4 an oxidized agent?

The hio4 which is called periodic acid is a chemical reagent that is used in the chemical oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds in the carbohydrates molecules like sugar.

Mainly targets the vicinal diols in the carbohydrates group which oxidised to produce carbonyl compounds. 

How does hio4 act as an oxidising agent?

Hio4 oxidises vicinal diols, hydroxy ketones, and hydroxy aldehydes. A cyclic periodate ester interacts with two adjacent -OH functional groups. Thus hio4 lewis structure oxidized the diols(-OH) groups.

hio4 lewis structure
Hio4 as an oxidising agent

Is hio2 stronger than hio4?

No, hio4 is a stronger acid than hio2 due to more oxidation no or state of the central atom causing stronger acids.

Why is hio4 stronger than hio2?

The hio4 is stronger than hio2 because these are oxy-acids and in the case of halogen oxyacids the same halogen exists in different oxidation states.

If we see hio4 exist in a +7 oxidation state and that of hio2 the oxidation state of Iodine is +3. Thus more covalent oxides are the hio4.

How is hio4 stronger than hio2?

Because hio4 has more oxygen atoms than hio2, which is a highly electronegative atom, it attracts electron density away from iodine and pulls towards its sides. 

The negative charge on the conjugate base spreads out as the number of oxygen atoms increases. Thus more dispersal of charge on conjugate base will make hio4 stronger than hio2.

Is hio4 stronger than hio3?

Yes, hio4 is stronger than hio3 due to the higher oxidation state of hio4 and more oxidation states make it stronger acid than hio3.

Why is hio4 stronger than hio3?

The hio4 is stronger than hio3 because the same halogen exists in different oxidation states. If we see that hio4 exists in a +7 oxidation state and that hio3 is in a +5 oxidation state.

Thus more covalent oxides are formed of hio4 than of hio3.

How is hio4 stronger than hio3?

Hio4 has one more oxygen atom than hio3 which means oxygen pulls more electron density towards itself due more electronegative nature of oxygen in the OH bond than iodine.

Thus maximum electron density around the conjugate base of hio4 than hio3 makes them stronger.

Conclusion

Periodic acid is an iodine oxoacid with the chemical formula Hio4. It shows a great resonating structure and is an important reagent in organic chemistry. The hio4 has tetrahedral in shape with a bond angle of 109.8. Iodine is the central atom in the hio4 lewis structure which consist of 7 valence electrons and act as a strong oxidising agent.

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