HF Lewis Structure, Characteristics: 21 Facts You Should Know

In this article, we get to know about hf lewis structure, shape, formal charge, hybridization and its various properties.

Hydrogen Fluoride is a colourless liquid or gaseous substance and it has chemical formula of HF. Hydrofluoric acid is the name of the colourless aqueous solution that results from its propensity to dissolve in water.

The uses for HF are numerous. Through the electrolysis process, it functions as a precursor to the halogen fluorine. In addition to this, it serves as a precursor for a number of metal fluorides, including uranium hexafluoride and aluminium fluoride.

Anhydrous HF is employed in the alkylation of petroleum to raise its octane number because it possesses catalytic characteristics. In addition, hydrogen fluoride may be used to create refrigerants, fluorescent lights, and herbicides.

The endothermic reaction for the formation of HF:

CaF2    +    H2SO    ——–>      CaSO   +     2HF

How to draw Hf lewis structure?

The following is the step-by-step procedure in order to draw the Lewis Structure diagram of the Hydrogen Fluoride molecule:

Step 1Determine how many valence electrons are present in each hydrogen fluoride molecule

One hydrogen atom and one fluorine atom make up the compound HF.

Hydrogen belongs has 1 valence electron whereas Fluorine has 7 valence electrons. We can check

Total number of valence electrons in an HF molecule: 1 + 7 = 8.

Step 2 Identify the element that will occupy the centre of the molecule

Typically, the core atom is made of the element with the lowest electronegativity value.

Since hydrogen fluoride is a diatomic compound, the idea of a centre atom is absent from this situation.

Step 3Check the octet rule

The octet rule concerns the octet fulfilment of an element’s valence shell. According to this, elements in groups 1 through 17 frequently exhibit the noble gas elements’ octet outer shell electron structure.

Fluorine, which tends to contain eight electrons in its valence shell, is present in the HF molecule.

However, since hydrogen will acquire the [He] configuration, we can see that it has a propensity to contain two electrons in its outermost shell.

Step 4Check Formal Charge

The formal charge is defined as the charge we assign to a particular atom inside a molecule under the hypothesis that electrons are dispersed uniformly across components for bond formation.

We calculate formal charge via the following formula:

Formal Charge = Valence electrons – 0.5 × Bonding electrons – Lone pair of electrons

In HF, the formal charge for H = 1 – 0.5 × 2 – 0 = 0.

The formal charge for F = 7 – 0.5 × 2 – 6 = 0.

There is a single bond between H and F due to sharing of an electron pair.

HF lewis structure shape

Since HF is a heteronuclear diatomic molecule with two electron clouds around the two atoms, one on each, they will be put as far apart as possible to lessen the repelling forces.

According to VSEPR theory, the H and F atoms are creating a straight line with one another and the only feasible bond angle is 180 degrees.

Observe VSEPR notations (AXnEx). This is often done for polyatomic compounds (molecules with more than two atoms) in which a core atom has a functional role.

In HF molecule, consider H to be A.

X = number of surrounding atoms, therefore n = 1.

E = number of lone pairs on A, therefore x = 0.

The notation is AX1E0.

If F is considered to A, the notation will be AX1E3.

For a notation of AX1Ex, we will have a linear structure and a bond angle of 180 degrees.

3D Representation of HF Molecule from wikipedia

HF lewis structure formal charge

Formal Charge = Valence electrons – 0.5 × Bonding electrons – Lone pair of electrons

In HF, the formal charge for H = 1 – 0.5 × 2 – 0 = 0

The formal charge for F = 7 – 0.5 × 2 – 6 = 0

HF lewis structure angle

The bond angle in hydrogen fluoride lewis structure is 180 degrees.

HF lewis structure octet rule

Atoms of hydrogen and fluorine both lack charges, and fluorine’s centre position creates an octet. As a result, the octet rule is met. This molecule is hence the stable Lewis structure for HF.

HF lewis structure lone pairs

Each molecule of HF has one hydrogen atom that may form a hydrogen bond, while the fluorine atom possesses three lone pairs of electrons.

HF valence electrons

Hydrogen has one valence electron whereas Fluorine has 7 valence electrons.

Total number of valence electrons in an HF molecule = 1 + 7 = 8

HF hybridization

Let’s examine the fluorine atom’s electronic structure in relation to HF.

With an atomic mass of 9, fluorine has the electrical structure 1s22s22p5.

Here, the three p orbitals and the s orbital combine to generate four sp3 hybridised orbitals; the kind of hybridization present is sp3.

HF solubility

Hydrogen fluoride is completely miscible in water.

Is HF soluble in water?

Hydrofluoric acid (HFA) is the name given to hydrogen fluoride when it has been dissolved in water.

Is HF a strong electrolyte?

Hydrogen fluoride is the weak electrolyte.

Why is HF not a strong electrolyte?

The bond between hydrogen and fluorine is strong, it is completely dissociated. So it is not a strong electrolyte.

Is HF a hydrogen bond?

A diatomic molecule, hydrogen fluoride generates intermolecular hydrogen bonds that are rather strong.

Is HF acidic or basic?

Hydrogen fluoride is acidic in nature.

Is HF weak acid?

Hydrogen fluoride is weak acid.

Is HF stronger than HCl?

Because an acid’s strength depends on how fully it will dissociate, HF is a weaker acid. Because the link between HF and HCl is greater than the binding between the two, HCl will dissociate more fully, making it a stronger acid.

Is HF polar or nonpolar?

H has an electronegativity of 2.20 while F has an electronegativity of 3.98. 1.78 is the difference.

H will carry a partial 𝛅+ charge in the H-F bond, while F will carry a 𝛅- charge. Since there is just one bond present, the net resulting dipole does not cancel out despite the fact that HF is linear. As a result, HF contains a polar molecule.

Is HF a lewis acid or base?

Hydrogen fluoride is weak acid.

Is HF linear?

Yes, Hydrogen fluoride has the linear shape.

Is HF paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

The HF consists of one unpaired electron from a 2p orbital of F and one electron from H. The hybridised orbital is diamagnetic because it has no unpaired electrons, as seen by the molecular orbital diagram.


In the above article, we learned about how to draw lewis structure of Hydrogen fluoride molecule, shape, hybridization and its various properties like polarity, solubility, etc.

Madhusudan DN

Hi....I am D N Madhusudan, I have completed my master's in General Chemistry from the University of Mysore. Apart from this, I like to read and listen to Music. Let's connect through LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/madhusudan-d-n-b83a05156

Recent Posts