HCOOH Lewis Structure, Characteristics: 51 Complete Quick Facts


HCOOH or CH2O2 is the chemical formula of formic acid. Here, we are learning about HCOOH lewis structure, characteristics and quick facts.

Formic acid is an first most carboxylic acid, which is in liquid form with no colour and strong pungent smell. Formic acid also has some synonyms like methanoic acid, formyl acid and aminic acid. Formic acids are occurring naturally on bee’s venome and stings of ants. It can be used as an antibacterial agent for food of live stocks and as preservatives.

How to draw HCOOH lewis structure?

Lewis structure can be drawn by remembering the following steps:

  1. Note group positions of H, C and O atoms of HCOOH acid in periodic table.
  2. Count overall valence electrons available on HCOOH lewis structure.
  3. Select least electronegative atom as central atom of the HCOOH lewis structure.
  4. Make bonding within all HCOOH lewis structure.
  5. Left over valence electrons have gone to bonding atoms as non- bonding electrons.
  6. Now, note the lone pair electrons present on HCOOH lewis structure and also check the octet of H, C and O atoms complete or incomplete.
  7. Evaluate the formal charge available on HCOOH lewis structure.
  8. Predict the shape hybridization and bond angle of HCOOH lewis structure.

HCOOH valence electrons

The HCOOH lewis structure composed of three atoms i.e. hydrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms. The hydrogen, carbon and oxygen all the three atoms of HCOOH lewis structure has comes under 1st, 14th and 16th group of periodic table. Thus, they have one, four and six valence electrons in their valence shell orbital respectively.

The calculation for number of valence electrons available on HCOOH lewis structure can be done by summation of all the valence electrons present on each C, H and O atoms. So, the valence electrons on HCOOH lewis structure are:

Valence electrons on hydrogen atoms of HCOOH = 1 x 2 (H) = 2

Valence electrons on carbon atoms of HCOOH = 4 x 1 (C) = 4

Valence electrons on oxygen atoms of HCOOH = 6 x 2 (O) = 12

Valence electron on HCOOH lewsis structure = 2 (H) + 4 (C) + 12 (O) = 18

Therefore, the valence electrons on HCOOH lewis structure are eighteen.

Here, the number of electrons pairs available on HCOOH lewis structure can be determined by division of valence electrons on HCOOH by 2.

Thus, 18 / 2 = 9

Hence, there are nine electron pairs present on HCOOH lewis structure.

hcooh lewis structure
Valence electrons on HCOOH lewis structure

HCOOH lewis structure octet rule

HCOOH lewis structure has 18 number of valence electrons, from them eight electrons are get engaged in bonding to form four sigma covalent bonds in HCOOH.

The remaining ten valence electrons are being non – bonding electrons on HCOOH lewis structure. There are four sigma covalent bonds between HCOOH i.e. one bond within Hydrogen and carbon (H-C), two bonds within carbon and oxygen (C-O) and one bond within oxygen and hydrogen (O-H).

Hence, the two oxygen atoms have complete octet, one oxygen atom has two bond pair and two lone pair electrons and another oxygen atom has one bond pair and three lone pair electrons having eight electrons. Carbon atom has incomplete octet with six bonding electrons and the two hydrogen atoms has satisfied its valency by having two electrons.

HCOOH lewis structure lone pairs

The HCOOH lewis structure contains 18 valence electrons. From them there are 8 bonding electrons forming four sigma covalent bonds in HCOOH lewis structure. And the remaining 10 electrons are non – bonding electrons present on two oxygen atoms of HCOOH lewis structure.

These ten non – bonding electrons are being five lone pair electrons on HCOOH lewis structure which is situated on two oxygen atom. One O atom has three lone pair electrons and another oxygen atom has two lone pair electrons. Therefore, the HCOOH lewis structure contains total five lone electron pairs.

HCOOH lewis structure

HCOOH lewis structure formal charge

If the lewis structure could have minimum formal charge, thus the lewis structure considered as a stable lewis structure. There is an formula to evaluate the formal charge on any lewis structure which is a s follows:

Formal charge = (valence electrons – non-bonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons)

HCOOH lewis structure (formic acid) can be done by evaluating the formal charge of atoms present in HCOOH molecule. So, let us first evaluate the formal charge of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms.

Carbon atom: Carbon atom of HCOOH contains Valence electrons = 04

                       Carbon atom of HCOOH contains Non- bonding electrons = 00

                       Carbon atoms of HCOOH contains Bonding electrons = 06

Carbon atom of HCOOH lewis structure has Formal charge is = (4 – 0 – 6/2) = +1

Thus, the carbon atom of HCOOH lewis structure has +1 formal charge.

Hydrogen atom:Hydrogen atom of HCOOH contains Valence electrons = 01

                          Hydrogen atom of HCOOH contains Non- bonding electrons = 00

                          Hydrogen atom of HCOOH contains Bonding electrons = 02

Hydrogen atom of HCOOH lewis structure has formla charge is = (01 – 00 – 2/2) = 0

Thus, the hydrogen atom of HCOOH lewis structure has formal charge is zero.

Oxygen atom 1: Oxygen atom of HCOOH contains valence electrons = 06

                          Oxygen atom of HCOOH contains Non – bonding electrons = 04

                          Oxygen atom of HCOOH contains Bonding electrons = 04

Oxygen atom of HCOOH lewis structure has formal charge = (6 – 4 – 4/2) = 0

Thus, the oxygen atom of HCOOH lewis structure has zero formal charge.

Oxygen atom 2: Oxygen atom of HCOOH contains valence electrons = 06

                          Oxygen atom of HCOOH contains Non – bonding electrons = 06

                          Oxygen atom of HCOOH contains Bonding electrons = 02

Oxygen atom of HCOOH lewis structure has formal charge = (6 – 6 – 2/2) = -1

Thus, the oxygen atom of HCOOH lewis structure has -1 formal charge.

Therefore, the HCOOH lewis structure has formal charge present on C = +1, H = 0, O = 0 and O = -1.

HCOOH lewis structure resonance

The HCOOH (formic acid) can form four resonating structures by moving the electrons in the molecule and by forming the double (multiple) bonds in it. Here, the first resonating structure of HCOOH acid is the most stable structure zero formal charge in the structure on all the atoms by forming the C=O double bond.

The second resonating structure shows some formal charge as there is the formation of double bond within C and another O atom. Thus it has partial negative charge on one carbon atom having three lone electron pairs and partial positive charge on another O atom having one double bond one lone electron pair.

The third and fourth resonating structure having all the single bonds in it. In third resonance structure of HCOOH acid, one O atom has three lone electron pairs having negative charge and another O atom having two lone electron pairs with positive charge. In fourth resonance structure, both the O atoms having two lone electron pairs with positive and negative charge on it.

Four resonance structures of HCOOH lewis structure

HCOOH lewis structure shape

The HCOOH lewis structure contains one carbon atom, two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. The central carbon atom of HCOOH lewis structure gets bonded with three bonding atoms i.e. one hydrogen atom and two oxygen atoms. Thus, the central carbon atom gets surrounded by three bonding elements.

Hence, as per the VSEPR theory’s module the HCOOH lewis structure belongs to AX3 generic formula. Here, A = central atom and X = bonding atoms to central atom. Thus, the HCOOH lewis structure has trigonal planar molecular shape and electron geometry.

HCOOH hybridization

The HCOOH lewis structure comprise of one central carbon atom which is bonded with three outer bonding atoms due to which it has AX3 generic formula of VSEPR theory.

So, the HCOOH lewis structure has trigonal planar molecular shape and electron geometry. Thus, the carbon atom of HCOOH lewis structure is sp2 hybridized. Hence, the HCOOH lewis structure has sp2 hybridization.

HCOOH lewis structure angle

As per the VSEPR predictions the HCOOH lewsi structure has trigonal planar molecular shape and electron geometry. Also it has sp2 hybridization so there should be the bond angle of 120 degree within HCOOH lewis structure. But the central carbon atom gets attached with one oxygen atom which has two lone electron pairs.

Hence, due to the presence of lone electron pairs on oxygen atom the bond angel of HCOOH lewis structure get changes. Thus the H-C=O bond angle is 124 degree, O=C-O bond angle is 125 degree, H-C-O bond angle is 111 degree and the C-O-H bond angle has 106 degree. Therefore, HCOOH lewis structure has various bond angles in its structure.

Bond angles of HCOOH lewis structure

HCOOH solubility

HCOOH (formic acid or methanoic acid) is soluble in the solvents as follows:

  • Water
  • Acetone
  • Ether
  • Glycerol
  • Ethyl acetate
  • Ethanol
  • Methanol
  • Benzene (partially miscible)
  • Xylene (partially miscible)
  • Toluene (partially miscible)

Is HCOOH soluble in water?

Yes formic acid (HCOOH) is soluble in water as they both are polar molecules.

Why HCOOH is soluble in water?

HCOOH is a polar substance and water is also a polar substance, thus here can apply ‘like dissolve like’ words. Both the polar substances can dissolve with each other. Also the HCOOH (formic acid) and H2O (water) contains –OH (hydroxyl) group so they can more soluble with each other.

How HCOOH is soluble in water?

When the formic acid gets mixed with water it can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Formic acid can form two hydrogen bonds when added to water.

The oxygen atom of formic acid having double bond can form one hydrogen bond with hydrogen atom of water molecule. Similarly, the hydrogen atom of formic acid can form hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of water molecule.

Is HCOOH an electrolyte?

Yes HCOOH is an electrolyte. But it is an weak electrolyte due to its low capacity to form ions in aqueous solution.

Why HCOOH is a weak electrolyte?

HCOOH (formic acid) when mixed in water get dissociates into water as separate ions H+ and HCOO- ions. But this ion formation is very low or incomplete ions get formed in water. Due to low ion formation HCOOH is an weak electrolyte.

How HCOOH is a weak electrolyte?

Electrolytes are the substances which get mixed in water and form ions to conduct electricity. When HCOOH gets mixed in H2O, it gets ionizes as HCOO- and H+ ions in aqueous solution.

HCOOH(aq) ↔ H+(aq) + HCOO-(aq)

The ionization is very low in the solution but still it can acts like a weak electrolyte in water solution and can conduct electricity.

Is HCOOH a strong electrolyte?

No, HCOOH is not a strong electrolyte because it is a weak electrolyte. Strong electrolytes are those which can ionize completely in water. Weak electrolytes are those which can ionize incompletely or rarely in water.

HCOOH when added to water it can ionize as hydrogen ion (H+) and HCOO- (formate) ion. But it cannot ionize completely in water, the HCOOH molecules are still remains in water solution. Thus, HCOOH is a weak electrolyte and not strong electrolyte.

Is HCOOH acidic or basic?

HCOOH (formic acid or methanoic acid) is an acid obviously and not a base. Acids are the substances which can protonated or form or donate or release H+ ions or protons when mixed in water or reacts with base. HCOOH can donate H+ ion on dissociation in water thus is an acid in nature. But HCOOH is a weak acid.

Is HCOOH a strong acid?

No, HCOOH is not a strong acid even it is considered as a weak acid, due to low ionization of HCOOH acid in water. Strong acids are those which can ionize completely on mixing with water. Thus, HCOOH is a weak acid.

Why HCOOH is a weak acid?

HCOOH is an weak acid, because when it mixed in H2O it can dissociates as HCOO- (formate) group and H+ (hydrogen) ions. But the formation of these ions from HCOOH is very low and most of the HCOOH molecules are still present as it is in water solution. Thus, HCOOH is a weak acid.

How HCOOH is a weak acid?

Acids are the substance which can donates or release H+ ions or protons when mixed in water. Hence, HCOOH (formic) acid is the weak acid as it can dissociates very rare on mixing in water. Most of the HCOOH molecules are present as it is in water, so HCOOH is a weak acid.

Is HCOOH polyprotic acid?

No, HCOOH (formic acid) is not a poly protic acid due to its ability to donate only one proton or H+ ion to other chemical compounds.

Why HCOOH is not polyprotic?

The HCOOH (formic) acid is an mon – protic acid as when it reacts with a base or other polar solvents like water it can donates only one proton. Thus it is not a polyprotic as it is a monoprotic acid.

How HCOOH is polyprotic?

When formic acid or HCOOH acid gets reacts with water, it gets ionized as H+ (hydrogen ion or proton) and HCOO- (formate ion). Hence, there is no donation of more than one proton or H+ ion in this reaction. So, due to the release of only one proton, HCOOH is a weak mono – protic acid.

Is HCOOH a lewis acid?

No, HCOOH is not shows any behaviour of lewis acid. Lewis acids are the acids which can accept electron pair from other compounds to form a covalent bond. Hence, this kind of characteristic cannot shown by HCOOH acid, thus it cannot be considered as a lewis acid.

Is HCOOH an Arrhenius acid?

Yes, HCOOH (formic) acid is an Arrhenius acid, as it can produce H+ ions or protons in aqueous solution.

Why HCOOH is an Arrhenius acid?

When HCOOH (formic acid) gets mixed with water it can produce H+ ions in water solution. Thus, as per the Arrhenius theory of acid, the acid is the compound which can produce H+ ions or protons when mixed in water or aqueous solution.

As the HCOOH can produce H+ ions in water so it is a Arrhenius acid.

HCOOH + H2O → HCOO- + H3O+ Or

HCOOH(aq) ↔ HCOO- + H+

Is HCOOH polar or nonpolar?

HCOOH (formic acid) is polar in nature due to its asymmetric shape and unequal electron distribution in HCOOH molecule.

Why HCOOH is polar?

The C, H and O atoms of HCOOH acid have electronegative value of 2.5, 2.2 and 3.5 respectively. Thus the electronegative difference between the C-H, O-C and O-H bonds is 0.3, 1 and 1.3 respectively.

Therefore, the C-H bond is more covalent in nature, O-C bond is moderately covalent in nature and the O-H bond is barely covalent in nature, but they all are polar covalent in nature. So, due to all this factors and the electronegativity difference values of HCOOH molecule shows polar covalent nature thus HCOOH is a polar molecule.

How HCOOH is polar?

The HCOOH acid has uneven electron distribution in its molecule due to which the net dipole creates within the molecule. There is partial positive charge creates on carbon atom and partial negative charge creates on oxygen atom in HCOOH acid. Also the HCOOH acid has asymmetrical structure having trigonal planar geometry. Hence, HCOOH acid is polar in nature.

Is HCOOH linear?

No, HCOOH is not a linear molecule as it has a trigonal planar shape as per VSEPR theory.

Why HCOOH is not linear?

The HCOOH acid comes under the AX3 generic formula of VSEPR theory. According to which the HCOOH acid consists of trigonal planar molecular shape and electron geometry. Thus, HCOOh is not a linear molecule.

How HCOOH is not linear?

In HCOOH lewis structure, the HCOOH molecule consists of one central atom i.e. carbon atom and it has three bonding atoms attached to carbon i.e. one hydrogen atom and two oxygen atoms.

Thus it has AX3 generic formula of VSEPR theory due to which it has trigonal planar molecular shape and electron geometry and not linear.

Is HCOOH paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

HCOOH is a diamagnetic compound as it has all the paired electrons in it, also the magnetic susceptibility value of HCOOH is negative. Thus HCOOH is a diamagnetic substance.

Why HCOOH is diamagnetic?

Formic acid (HCOOH) is a diamagnetic substance. The diamagnetism can be determined by the presence of paired electrons in a molecule or if there is even number of electrons are present.

Then the substance is diamagnetic in nature. Here, HCOOH acid has 18 valence electrons i.e. it has even number of electrons and also the bond order is 1.0, thus HCOOH is diamagnetic in nature.

How HCOOH is diamagnetic?

The HCOOH acid is diamagnetic substance. The magnetic susceptibility value of HCOOH (formic or methanoic) acid is −19.90·10−6 cm3/mol. Thus, the diamagnetic substances having the negative value of magnetic susceptibility.

Hence the HCOOH acid have negative magnetic susceptibility value. If we applied an external magnetic field on HCOOH acid, it get repel with the magnetic field. Hence, HCOOH is a diamagnetic substance.

HCOOH boiling point

The boiling point of HCOOH (formic) acid is 100.8 degree Celsius, which is quite the high boiling point. Hence, the formic acid (HCOOH) having highest boiling point.

Why HCOOH have high boiling point?

Formic acid has the highest boiling point as the HCOOH has strong hydrogen bonding capacity. Due to the strong intermolecular forces present in HCOOH acid it is not easy to break these intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonds in formic acid. Thus, its takes quite long time to boil and hence the HCOOH acid or formic acid has higher boiling point.

HCOOH bond angle

If we see the VSEPR theory’s prediction, the HCOOH acid has AX3 generic formula due to which it has trigonal planar molecular shape and electron geometry and sp2 hybridization. So, as per VSEPR theory it should have 120 degree bond angle.

But due to lone electron pairs present on oxygen atom of HCOOH molecule, there is repulsion and the bond angle changes. Thus, the H-C=O have 124 degree bond angle, O=C-O bond angle is 125 degree, H-C-O bond angle is 111 degree and the C-O-H bond angle is 106.9 degree.

Is HCOOH diprotic?

No, HCOOH is not a diprotic acid as it can release only one hydrogen (H+) ion on reaction with water. Thus, it is a mono – protic acid and not diprotic. Diprotic acids are those acids which can donates or release two H+ ions when reacts with H2O.

HCOOH acid when reacts with water it get ionizes as HCOO- and H+ ions. Hence, there is formation of only one H+ ion in this reaction, thus it considered as a monoprotic acid.

Is HCOOH ionic or covalent?

HCOOH (formic) acid is a polar covalent molecule. There is a formation of single sigma covalent bonds between all the atoms of HCOOH acid, but they are polar covalent in nature.

As there is more electronegative difference between all the atoms of HCOOH acid i.e. they have electronegative difference within the given range of 0.4 to 1.8 and hence they are polar covalent in nature. Even there is partial positive and negative charge is present on atoms of HCOOH acid, therefore it creates a net dipole on HCOOH molecule.

Is HCOOH amphiprotic?

No, formic (HCOOH) acid is not an amphiprotic or amphoteric substance, as it can only donates its one H+ ion or proton.

Why HCOOH is not amphiprotic?

HCOOH is not an amphiprotic substance. Amphiprotic compounds are those which can behave both as acid and base. They can release protons and also gain protons from other species.

Here, in case of HCOOH acid, it has the ability to donate protons to other species but it cannot gain or accept proton from other species. Hence HCOOH is not an amphiprotic substance.

Is HCOOH binary or ternary?

HCOOH (formic) acid is a ternary compound. Binary acids are those acids which contain only two atom one hydrogen atom and second other atom, which can form H+ ion a cation and other anion. Ternary acid are polyatomic acids having more than two atoms in its molecules.

Why HCOOH is ternary?

HCOOH acid is a ternary acid because it is a polyatomic acid. In ternary acids, the hydrogen atom which is attached the oxygen atom is readily ionisable. Here, in HCOOH acid if there is dissociation or ionization occurs in it, it ge ionized as HCOO- (formate ion) anion and H+ (hydrogen ion) cation.

HCOOH → HCOO- + H+

Here, in this reaction there is the formation of one cation and one anion. Cation id a single atomic molecule i.e. H+ ion but anion is a polyatomic ion i.e. HCOO- ion containing more than one atom. Hence, HCOOH is ternary acid.

Is HCOOH balanced?

Yes, HCOOH can form balanced equation on decomposition and on gas evolution. The reaction equation is considered to be balanced when the atoms on both reactant and product side is equal. If there is not equal atoms are present then it is not a balanced equation.

HCOOH (aq) → H2(l) + CO (g)

The above is the gas evolution reaction equation formed by HCOOH (formic acid. In which the HCOOH acid can evolve carbon mono-oxide (CO) gas with the formation of water molecules. Here there are equal atoms are present on reactant and product side. Thus this is a balanced equation.

HCOOH → CO2 + H2

This is the decomposition or redox reaction in which the HCOOH (formic acid) gets decomposed into carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and hydrogen (H2) gas. In this reaction also there are equal number of atoms are present on both side i.e. reactant and product side, so this HCOOH reaction equation is also balanced.

Is HCOOH conductive?

Yes, HCOOH is conductive in nature. Formic acid when dissolve in water get ionized and form ions as HCOO- and H+ ions, thus it behaves a s electrolyte.

Why HCOOH is conductive?

HCOOH is a weak electrolyte as it cannot completely dissociate into water also the HCOOH is a weak acid due to the low H+ and COOH- ion formation. Still HCOOH can conduct electricity due to ion formation and its electrolytic behaviour.

Electricity conduction needs the formation of ions in electrolytic solution, hence formic (HCOOH) acid can behave as weak electrolyte and conduct electricity and thus it is conductive in nature.

Is HCOOH conjugate base?

No, HCOOH is an acid named formic acid. But HCCOH can produce a conjugate base in aqueous solution by donating its proton.

Why HCOOH can form conjugate base?

As per the Bronstead Lowry theory of acids, the acids are the substance which can donate its proton to other substance and itself being a conjugate base.

Here, when formic acid gets mixed in water it release its H+ ion or proton to water molecule to form H3O+ (hydronium) ion and HCOO- (formate) ion. Here, the formate ion (HCOO-) is the conjugate base. Thus, HCOOH can form conjugate base.

HCOOH + H2O → H3O+ + HCOO-

Is HCOOH corrosive?

Yes, HCOOH is corrosive in nature. Formic (HCOOH) acid is corrosive to many substances like metals, rubber, plastics, organic tissues, some alloys like stainless steel, etc.

Formic acid is corrosive to human skin which can cause irritation to skin. It is also corrosive to human eyes and respiratory system.

Why HCOOH are corrosive?

HCOOH acid can release its proton when reacts with other chemical substance or water. It is corrosive to skin as when the HCOOH acid contacts with human skin it release H+ ion on skin and cause disruption of lipids and proteins on body skin.

This process is known as ester hydrolysis or amide hydrolysis. Hence, HCOOH acid damage cell tissue which cause skin burns and irritation.

Is HCOOH concentrated?

Yes, HCOOH acid is concentrated acid because it forms naturally and it is in its pure form a concentrated acid.

Why HCOOH is concentrated?

The acids in its pure form i.e. 98 to 99 % concentration it has then it is a concentrated acid. HCOOH acid in pure form has more acid molecules and very rare water molecules. Thus, formic acid or HCOOH acid is an concentrated acid.

Is HCOOH solid liquid or gas?

HCOOH (formic) acid is present in liquid or fluid form. Liquids are the substance in which the particles are situated far apart from each other and cannot form a shape. Thus, formic acid is liquid substance.

Is HCOOH hygroscopic?

Yes, HCOOH is hygroscopic in nature. Hygroscopic substances are those which can absorb moisture from air or atmosphere. Formic (HCOOH) acid can also absorb moisture from atmosphere and hence it shows a hygroscopic nature.

Is HCOOH hydrogen bonding?

Yes, HCOOH acid or formic acid can form hydrogen bonding. When formic acid reacts with water it cause intermolecular force of attraction between formic acid and water molecules forming hydrogen bond between HCOOH and H2O.

Here, oxygen atom of HCOOH forms hydrogen bond with hydrogen atom of H2O and also hydrogen atom of HCOOH forms hydrogen bond with oxygen atom of H2O molecule. Thus HCOOH can form two hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

Is HCOOH metal or non-metal?

HCOOH acid is a non- metal substance. All the elements or atoms present in HCOOH are non-metals in nature. The carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms are the constituent of formic acid and they all are comes under non-metals. Also it is present in liquid form, hence HCOOH is a non-metallic compound.

Is HCOOH neutral?

No, HCOOH is not a neutral molecule, as it is acidic in nature. Also HCOOH acid has +1 formal charge on carbon atom and -1 formal charge on one oxygen atom, due to which it cannot be neutral. Also it has some partial positive and negative charge, so HCOOH is acidic in nature and not neutral.

Is HCOOH a nucleophile?

No, HCOOH is not a nucleophile as it can behave a s an electrophile. HCOOH can behave as bronstead acid, which can donate its proton and form a conjugate base.

Electrophiles are lewis acid or bronstead acids which can accept electron pair or donates its protons. HCOOH on reaction with water can donates its proton to water molecule forming H3O+ ion and HCOO- ions which is a conjugate base. Thus, HCOOH is an electrophile and not nucleophile.

Is HCOOH organic or inorganic?

HCOOH acid is an organic compound as it contains carbon atom in its molecule. Organic compounds are those which has carbon atom present in its molecule. Here, in formic acid there is presence of carbon atom due to which it is an organic acid which occurs naturally in stings of ants.

Is HCOOH oxidizing agent?

No, HCOOH is not an oxidizing agent rather it is a reducing agent. Formic (HCOOH) acid contains both HCO (aldehyde group) and COOH (carboxylic group).

So, as like the other aldehyde compounds it can oxidized easily and hence behave as reducing agent. It can reduces Fehlings solution and Tollen’s reagent.

Is HCOOH polyatomic?

Yes, HCOOH is an polyatomic acid. HCOOH acid contains more than one atom in its structure. There are one carbon, two hydrogen and two oxygen atoms are present in HCOOH structure, therefore HCOOH is an polyatomic acid.

Is HCOOH volatile?

HCOOH is not more volatile in nature. Formic acid can form hydrogen bonds with aqueous solutions. Due to its ability to form hydrogen bonds HCOOH is not more volatile in nature.

Is HCOOH viscous?

Yes, HCOOH (formic) acid is viscous in nature. It has viscosity value of 1.57 cP.  It gets evaporated easily when placed open at room temperature. As more the HCOOH acid is concentrated it is more viscous in nature.

Conclusion:

Formic acid has hydrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms in its structure. HCOOH lewis structure contains 18 valence electrons from them 4 are bonding pair electrons and 5 are lone pair electrons. The carbon atom has +1 formal charge and one oxygen atom has -1 formal charge, other two hydrogen and one oxygen atoms has zero formal charges. It has trigonal planar shape and geometry, sp2 hybridization and nearly 120 degree bond angle. It is a polar molecule.

Dr. Shruti Ramteke

Hello everyone I am Dr. Shruti M Ramteke, i did my Ph.D in chemistry. I have five years of teaching experience for 11-12 standard, B,Sc and MSc in chemistry subject. I have published total five research articles during Ph.D on my research work and i have fellowship from UGC for my Ph.D. My Masters with specilization Inorganic chemistry and my graduation with chemistry, zoology and environmental science subjects. thank You

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