Hclo4 (Perchloric acid) is a mineral acid and a super acid. It exists as colorless aqueous solution. We will discuss here some important facts about it.
The Lewis structure of HClO4 consists of Chlorine as central atom, four atoms of oxygen and an atom of Hydrogen. The structure of HClO4 consists of three double bonds between Cl and O atoms and a single bond between Cl and OH.
Lewis Structure of HClO4 consists of H,Cl and O atoms. Let us learn the shape, angle, hybridization and many more characteristics about HClO4.
How to draw HClO4 Lewis structure?
Perchloric acid is an inorganic liquid. Let us learn how to draw Lewis structure for Perchloric acid step by step –
Step1: Count total number of valence electrons
H, Cl and O atoms have 1,7 and 6 valence electrons in their outermost shell respectively. The total valence electrons of HClO4 are, HClO4 = 1*1 + 1*7 + 4*6 = 32. Thus, HClO4 has total valence electrons as 32.
Step2: Decide the central atom of the Lewis structure
In the Lewis structure, the least electronegative atom will form the central atom. Chlorine being less electronegative than oxygen forms the central atom of HClO4.
Step 3: Form single Bond between the atoms or place a electron pair
There are 32 valence electrons in the Lewis structure of HClO4. Out of the 32 electrons, 10 electrons will be used up to form single bonds between the atoms.
Step 4: Complete octet or duplet (if the atom is hydrogen) of the outer atoms
Now, we will keep the electrons on the outer atoms in such a way so that their octet is fulfilled. Chlorine has more than eight electrons in HClO4 so Chlorine does not follow the octet rule.
Step: 5 Check the Formal Charge
To get the formal charge closer to zero for a stable structure, we can connect each of the three oxygen atoms with chlorine by a double bond.
HClO4 Lewis structure resonance
Resonance is a way of describing bonding in molecules with delocalized electrons. Let us explore whether HClO4 has resonance.
HClO4 shows resonance because of the presence of delocalized electrons on the oxygen atom single bonded to Chlorine atom. Due to movement of these electrons, HClO4 shows resonance. HClO4 forms four resonating structures.
HClO4 Lewis structure shape
The shape of the molecule is decided by the number of atoms bonded to the central atom and non-bonded electrons present on it. Let us explore the shape of HClO4.
HClO4 is tetrahedral in shape because the central atom Chlorine is sp3 hybridized. It has four bond pairs and there are no lone pairs present on the central atom.
HClO4 Lewis structure formal charge
Formal charge is the charge which is assigned to an atom in a molecule or an ion. Let us discuss the formal charge below.
The formal charge of HClO4 is not at all zero because of presence of charge on Chlorine and oxygen atoms. Formula to calculate formal charge for HClO4 , Formal charge = valence electrons – ½*bonding electrons – no. of non-bonding electrons on an atom.
The formal charge on Chlorine, Oxygen and hydrogen in HClO4 are as follows –
- The central Cl atom =7 – 0 – ½ (8) = +3
- Each of the three O atoms connected to Cl atom only = 6 – 6 – ½ (2) = -1
- The O atom connected to H atom = 6 – 4 – ½ (4) = 0
- The H atom = 1 – 0 – ½ (2) = 0
- So the HClO4 molecule is neutral, as the charges are equal and opposite.
HClO4 Lewis structure octet rule
Main group elements tries to achieve octet of electrons in its outer most shell. This is called the octet rule. We will discuss the HClO4 octet rule here.
There are more than 8 electrons (14 electrons) around the central Chlorine atom so it means that it does not follow octet rule. In HClO4, H and O needs 1 and 2 electrons to attain noble gas configuration. They achieve it by forming bonds.
HClO4 Lewis structure lone pair
Lone pairs are the non-bonded electron pairs present on an atom. Let us discuss about lone pairs in the HClO4 Lewis structure.
There are 8 lone pairs in the Lewis structure of HClO4. All the lone pairs are present on the O atoms only. No lone pairs are present on the central Cl atom because all the valence electrons of Cl are used up in the bond formation.
Number of lone pairs on different atoms in HClO4 is as follows-
- Double bonded oxygen atoms = 2 pairs
- the single bonded oxygen atom = 2 pairs
- Number of lone pairs in HClO4 = 2*3 + 2*1 = 8 lone pairs
- Thus, HClO4 has 8 lone pairs in the Lewis structure.
HClO4 valence electrons
Electrons which are present in the last shell of an atom are called the valence electrons. Let us find out the number of valence electrons in HClO4.
There are 32 electrons in the Lewis structure of HClO4. H, Cl and O have 1,7 and 6 valence electrons in their outermost shell respectively. H,Cl and O are present in group 1, group 17 and group 16 of the periodic table respectively.
The total valence electrons in the Lewis structure of HClO4 are as follows –
- Valence electrons of one Hydrogen atom (1H) = 1
- Valence electrons of one Chlorine atom (17Cl) = 7
- Oxygen (8O) = 6
- Thus, total valence electrons of HClO4 = 1*1 + 1*7 + 4*6 = 32
HClO4 bond angle
HClO4 molecule has no lone pairs on the central atom. let us discuss its bond angle below.
The bond angle of HClO4 is 109.5 degrees with a tetrahedral shape. Bond angle is angle formed between two covalent bonds arising from the same atom.
Hybridization is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new hybridized orbitals suitable to form bonds. Now discuss hybridization of HClO4 here.
Hybridization of central atom in HClO4 is sp3 hybridized. Hybridization of the central atom Cl can be found out by using the formula H=Nb.p. + NI.p., where H is the hybridization number, Nb.p. is the number of bond pairs and NI.p. is the number of lone pairs. Thus, the Hybridization of the central atom Cl = 4 + 0 = 4(sp3).
Solubility of HClO4
Solubility of a solute is the amount of solute in per unit volume of saturated solution at a given temperature. Let us discuss its solubility.
HClO4 is soluble in the following solvents-
- Hydrochloric acid
- Sulphuric acid
- Sodium Perchlorate etc.
Is HClO4 soluble in water?
Soluble means the ability to get dissolved in the given solvent. Let us discuss solubility of HClO4.
HClO4 is soluble in water. HClO4 is a polar molecule and water is also polar. There is a general rule that like dissolves like so HClO4 is miscible with water.
Why and how is HClO4 soluble in water?
HClO4 is soluble in water because it dissociates in water to form H+(aq) and ClO4–(aq)ions. These ions forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
Is HClO4 an electrolyte?
Substances like acids, bases, salts form electrolyte. An electrolyte is a substance which gets ionized in water. Let us find out whether HClO4 is an electrolyte or not.
HClO4 is an electrolyte. HClO4 forms ions when it is dissolved in water. Aqueous solution of HClO4 can conduct electricity due to the mobility of ions.
HClO4 is considered to be a strong electrolyte. When dissolved in water, it gets almost completely dissociated into H+(aq) and ClO4–(aq).
Why and how is HClO4 an electrolyte?
HClO4 is an electrolyte because it produces H+(aq) and ClO4–(aq) ions in water or in aqueous solution. An electrolyte produces ions in an aqueous solution so HClO4 is an electrolyte.
Is HClO4 acidic or basic?
Substances can be classified as acidic, basic or neutral. Let us find out which type of substance is HClO4.
HClO4 is acidic in nature. It releases H+ ions when it is dissolved in water. Acidic substances produce H+ ions when dissolved in water while basic substances produce OH– ions in water.
HClO4 is considered as a strong acid because it dissociates almost completely in aqueous solution. It produces greater number of hydrogen ions or protons in water.
Why and how is HClO4 acidic?
HClO4 is an acidic substance because In accordance with the Arrhenius theory, acids are those substances which contain hydrogen and releases hydrogen ions in water. HClO4 contains hydrogen and produces H+ions in water.
Is HClO4 a Lewis acid?
There are three acid-base theories- Lewis acid-base theory, Bronsted-Lowry theory and Arrhenius theory. Let us discuss whether HClO4 fits into the definition of HClO4.
HClO4 is a Lewis acid. A Lewis acid is any species that accepts a share in an electron pair. Chlorine in HClO4 can act as a electron pair acceptor.
Why and how is HClO4 called as a Lewis acid?
HClO4 is a Lewis acid because the central atom Chlorine in HClO4 has an expanded octet. Due to this , Chlorine can accept a share in electron pair.
Is HClO4 polar or non-polar?
A polar molecule contains partial charges on the bonded atoms while in a non-polar molecule no charges are present on them. Let us discuss this for HClO4 molecule.
HClO4 is a polar molecule. In the polar molecule, electrons are shared asymmetrically between the connected atoms while in non-polar molecules electrons are shared symmetrically between the connected atoms.
Why and how is HClO4 polar ?
HClO4 is a polar molecule because the Oxygen has more love for electrons than Chlorine. Being more electronegative than Cl, O pulls electrons towards itself more strongly than Chlorine. This makes the bond polar.
Is HClO4 linear?
A linear molecule is a straight molecule. We will find out here, whether HClO4 is a linear molecule.
HClO4 is not a linear molecule. A linear molecule is one in which the atoms of the molecule are queue in a straight line and bond angle of the molecule is 180 degrees.
Why and how is HClO4 not a linear molecule?
HClO4 is not a linear molecule. The reason behind it is that a molecule possess linear geometry when the central atom in the molecule is sp hybridized. In HClO4, the central atom Chlorine is sp3 hybridized which makes shape of HClO4 tetrahedral.
Is HClO4 paramagnetic or diamagnetic?
Magnetism is one of the properties of substances. Let us discuss the magnetic properties of HClO4.
HClO4 is diamagnetic in nature. A paramagnetic substance is weakly attracted by the magnetic field while diamagnetic substance repelled by the magnetic field.
Why and how is HClO4 diamagnetic ?
HClO4 is diamagnetic because it contains all the paired electrons and no electrons is present freely in it. It is repelled by the magnetic field.
HClO4 boiling point
The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure becomes equal to that of the atmospheric pressure. Let us discuss boiling point of HClO4.
The boiling point in HClO4 is 476K or 203 degrees Celsius. At this temperature the liquid gets converted into its vapours.
Why and how HClO4 has high boiling point?
HClO4 has high boiling point because HClO4 forms maximum boiling azeotropic mixture with water This mixture consists of 72.5% HClO4 and 27.5% water. Maximum boiling azeotropes have lower vapour pressure than the individual components of the mixture.
Is HClO4 ionic or covalent?
A molecule should form bond by sharing electrons for a covalent bond while for ionic bond by transfer of electrons. Let us discuss bond type in HClO4.
HClO4 is a covalent molecule as it contains covalent bonds. There are 8 covalent bonds in its structure. Cl forms 7 covalent bonds, a double bond with each of the three O atoms and a single bond with one O atom. One covalent bond is formed between a O and a H atom.
Why and how is HClO4 covalent?
HClO4 is a covalent compound because the structure of HClO4 consists of H, Cl and O which are all non-metals. The difference in electronegativities of H, Cl and O are lesser than 2.0. Thus, there is sharing of electrons and covalent bonds are formed.
Is HClO4 forms hydrogen bonding?
Hydrogen bonding is formed between H and an electronegative atom. We will discuss whether HClO4 forms hydrogen bonding.
The structure of hydrate HClO4 consists of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds are present between the perchlorate anion and H2O or H3O+.
Why and how is hydrogen bonding present in HClO4?
In the hydrates of HClO4, the hydrogen bond is present between the electronegative ClO4– anion and H2O or H3O+. Hydrogen bonding in HClO4 is formed between a hydrogen atom attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of the other molecule.
Is HClO4 structure contains a dipole?
A molecule is said to have dipole when it possesses oppositely charged ends. Let us discuss if HClO4 has dipole.
HClO4 has dipole. It contains oppositely charged Chlorine and Oxygen atoms in its structure. Oxygen is more electronegative than chlorine
Why and how is HClO4 having dipoles?
HClO4 has dipole due to the difference in electronegativity between chlorine and oxygen atoms. A molecule develops dipole because of the difference in electronegativity between the two bonded atoms.
Is HClO4 monoprotic, diprotic or triprotic?
Monoprotic, diprotic, tripotic nature of an acid is decided by number of hydrogen atoms they contain. We will discuss below for HClO4.
HClO4 is a monoprotic acid. A monoprotic, diprotic and triprotic acids are those which can produce one, two and three protons in water respectively.
Why and how is HClO4 a monoprotic acid?
HClO4 is a monoprotic acid because it can give only one proton to the aqueous solution. Monoprotic acids contain only one hydrogen in their molecule.
Is HClO4 binary or oxyacid?
A binary acid is formed of two types of atoms while an oxyacid has more than two types of atom. Let us discuss here whether HClO4 is a binary acid or an oxyacid.
HClO4 is an oxyacid as it contains oxygen. An oxyacid contains oxygen atom with hydrogen atom attach to it and also at least one more element.
Why and how is HClO4 an oxyacid?
HClO4 qualify as an oxyacid because it contains Oxygen atom attached to a Hydrogen atom and it also contain Chlorine atom.
Is HClO4 stronger than H2SO4?
One acid can be stronger in strength than the other. We will discuss here, which is stronger among HClO4 and H2SO4.
HClO4 is a more stronger acid than H2SO4. Acidic strength depends on various factors like the size of central atom, its electronegativity, oxidation number etc.
Why and how is HClO4 stronger acid than H2SO4?
HClO4 is stronger acid than H2SO4 as the oxidation state of Chlorine (+7) is more than sulfur (+6). Also the electronegativity of Chlorine is more than Sulfur.
Is HClO4 stronger than HCl?
Acids have different acidic strengths. Let us compare the strength HClO4 and HCl below.
HClO4 is stronger acid than HCl though both HClO4 and HCl consist of Cl as the central atom. In HClO4, Chlorine is attached to the more electronegative oxygen atom.
Why and how is HClO4 stronger acid than HCl?
HClO4 is a stronger acid than HCl as in HClO4 ,Hydrogen is attached to more electronegative O atom. O being more electronegative pulls electrons towards it. Thus, the O-H bond is weakened and more H+ are released. Thus, acidity of HClO4 increases.
Is HClO4 stronger than HBrO4?
To compare strengths of different acids we need to take into consideration certain factors. Let us compare the strength of these two acids.
HClO4 is stronger acid than HBrO4. The only difference between these acids is the central atom while both the acids contain same number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
Why and how is HClO4 stronger than HBrO4?
HClO4 is stronger acid than HBrO4. Because the central atom Cl of HClO4 is more electronegative than central atom Br of HBrO4. This overweighs the difference in the size of Cl and Br. Thus more H+ ions are produced in HClO4 than in HBrO4.
Is HClO4 stronger than HNO3?
Strength of acids affects how much a acid dissociates in aqueous solution. Let us find out which of the two is a stronger acid.
HClO4 is not a stronger acid than HNO3 . Here, electronegativity difference between N and Cl overweighs the size difference between them.
Why and how is HClO4 weaker acid than HNO3?
HClO4 weaker acid than HNO3. Because the central atom Nitrogen of HNO3 is more electronegative than the central atom Cl of HClO4. Even though we know that Cl is bigger in size than N.
Is HClO4 stronger than HF?
There are various factors which governs the acid strength. Let us compare the acid strength of HClO4 and HF below.
HClO4 is a stronger acid than HF. The reason behind it is the central atom Chlorine in HClO4 is bigger in size than Fluorine, the central atom in HF though fluorine is more electronegative than Chlorine.
Why and how is HClO4 a stronger acid than HF?
HClO4 is considered to be a strong acid than HF because of the electronegative effect. In HClO4, the O-H bond is weakened due to electronegative effect of C and O. So more Hydrogen ions are released. In HF, H-F bond is short and hence HF releases hydrogen ions less often.
Is HClO4 stronger than HI?
Presence of more polar bond in acid makes the acid stronger. Lets discuss this fact in connection to HClO4 and HI.
HClO4 is more acidic than HI due to the presence of a polar bond between Chlorine and Oxygen atoms in HClO4. Oxygen is more electronegative than Chlorine.
Why and how is HClO4 more acidic than HI?
HClO4 is more acidic than HI as the central atom Chlorine of HClO4 is more electronegative than Iodine in HI. The Cl is more electronegative in nature than I. This overweighs the size difference between Chlorine and Iodine.
The structure of HClO4 is an oxyacid. It is a stronger acid than H2SO4, HI, HF etc. It is a super acid.