17 Facts on HCl + NH3: What, How To Balance & FAQs

HCl + NH3 is a chemical reaction that occurs in an aqueous medium. Let us discuss the different characteristics in detail.

Hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide are two chemical compounds that are always present in the liquid state. HCl is a strong acid while NH3 is a weak base.

In this article we will discuss the net ionic reaction, intermolecular forces of attraction, and reaction enthalpy with conjugate pairs in detail.

What is the product of HCl and NH3

As HCl is a strong acid so, this will completely dissociate in water.

HCl = H+ + Cl

NH3 is a weak base and because of this partial dissociation formation of salt takes place which is precipitated below in the form of powder.

HCl + NH3 = NH4Cl

What type of reaction is HCl + NH3

The reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide is a combination reaction in which only one single product is formed by the combination of two chemical compounds.

How to balance HCl + NH3

The reactants HCl + NH3 form a single product of NH4Cl which is a salt of ammonia. In a balanced reaction the number of moles of chemical must be the same in the reactant as well as in the product and the reaction is balanced by itself which is  HCl + NH3 = NH4Cl

HCl + NH3 titration

Apparatus used

The apparatus used are – Beaker, burette, conical flask, and measuring cylinder.


The indicator used for the titration is “Methyl red”.


Make a batch solution of 250ml by adding HCl and NH3 into it and measure with the cylinder now add a few drops of the indicator until the color changes and the salt of NH4Cl precipitates in the flask.

HCl + NH3 net ionic equation

The following steps can give a net ionic equation,

  • First, write the complete equation with the states HCl (l) + NH3(s) = NH4Cl (ppt)
  • Now, splits the compound in the ionic form which is H+ + Cl+ NH3 = NH4+ + Cl
  • Leftover NH3 can be written as N+ + H3 = NH3

HCl+ NH3 conjugate pairs

When acid donates the proton and converts into its conjugate base and base accepts the proton to convert into conjugate acid. In the reaction HCl is an acid with conjugate base Cl and NH3 is a base with conjugate acid of NH4+.

Conjugate acid-base

HCl and NH3 intermolecular forces

  • In HCl, because of the ionic compound, dipole-dipole interaction force with London dispersion force is present between hydrogen and chloride atom.

HCLl+ NH3 reaction enthalpy

The enthalpy is the amount of energy required to complete the following reaction and the enthalpy of the final reaction of Hydrochloric acid and Ammonium hydroxide is 1569.54 J/mol.

Is HCL + NH3 a buffer solution

The reaction HCl + NH3  acts as a buffer solution because NH3 forms a hydrogen bond with water and acts as a weak base while the formation of NH4Cl dissociates into NH4+ which acts like a base and a pH of buffer solution is formed with ammonia and ammonium chloride.

Is HCl + NH3 a complete reaction

The reaction of  HCl + NH3 = NH4Cl is a complete reaction because in this reaction two different chemical compounds forming g a single product which is a complete salt and complete compound.

Is HCl + NH3 an exothermic or endothermic reaction

The reaction HCl + NH3 is an exothermic reaction in that it releases a good amount of heat while reacting with each other because of the precipitation of the ammonia salt.

Is HCl + NH3 a redox reaction

 HCl + NH3 is not a redox reaction because there is no change in the oxidation states of the chemical compound in the reactant as well as in the product only the transfer of hydrogen ions is taking place.

Is HCl + NH3 a precipitation reaction

 HCl + NH3 is a precipitation reaction as ammonium chloride is formed as a final product in the reaction which is a salt and gets precipitated.

Is HCl+ NH3 reversible or irreversible reaction

 HCl + NH3 is the irreversible reaction because the product formed ammonium hydroxide is an insoluble salt which further does not react with any chemical compounds even water.

Is HCl + NH3 displacement reaction

HCl + NH3 is not a displacement reaction because there is no exchange of ions taking place throughout the reaction.

Graham’s law experiment HCl + NH3

According to Graham’s law experiment for HCl + NH3, a white salt of ammonium chloride is deposited within 10 minutes where the gasses of ammonia and hydrochloric acid combine in a glass tube.

NH3 (g) + HCl (g) = NH4Cl (s)

HCl + NH3 bronsted lowry

The Bronsted lowry concept is that acid always donates the proton while base always accepts the proton in HCl + NH3, the acid is HCl as it donates the proton in the form of H+ ion where NH3 is base which is accepting the H+ ion.


HCl + NH3 both are two totally different chemical compounds one is a strong acid and the other is a weak base instead of they form a very important salt which is ammonium chloride used for many purposes and analysis of organic compounds.

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