HCl is the chemical formula of hydrochloric acid. Here we are discussing about HCl lewis structure, characteristics and some quick facts.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a liquid and hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a gas. Hydrochloric acid is in watery liquid form with no colour and having pungent smell. Hydrogen chloride is a yellowish inflammable gas and corrosive in nature. HCl is mainly consists of one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom in its structure. It has synonyms like muriatic acid and chloro – hydric acid.
How to draw HCl lewis structure?
Lewis structure can be draw with the help of following steps:
- Predict the group position of H and Cl atoms in periodic table.
- Evaluate total valence electrons of HCl lewis structure by adding valence electrons of H and Cl atoms.
- More electronegative atom is being central atom but in HCl it is diatomic so it gets placed besides each other.
- Form single covalent bond between H and Cl atoms.
- Remaining valence electrons goes to chlorine atom and being non- bonding electrons.
- Check the complete octet of atoms and mark lone electron pairs.
- Count formal charge present on HCl lewis structure.
- Recognize the shape, hybridization and bond angle of the HCl lewis structure.
HCl valence electrons
In HCl lewis structure, the hydrogen atom comes under 1st periodic table group and chlorine atom comes under 17th periodic table group. Hence, the H and Cl atoms of HCl lewis structure have 1 and 7 valence electrons in its outermost valence shell. Let first calculate the total valence electrons present on HCl lewis structure.
Hydrogen atom of HCl has valence electrons = 01
Chlorine atom of HCl has valence electrons = 07
Total valence electrons of HCl lewis structure = 01 (H) + 07 (Cl) = 08
Therefore the total valence electrons on HCl lewis structure are eight.
Total electron pairs on HCl lewis structure can be predict by dividing all valence electrons by two.
Total electron pairs on HCl = 8 / 2 = 4
Hence, total electron pairs on HCl are four.
HCl lewis structure octet rule
HCl lewis structure there are eight total valence electrons are present out of which two electrons are bond pairs creating a covalent bond between hydrogen and chlorine atoms. So, now we have left more six valence electrons for further bonding or sharing.
H atom cannot contain more than two electrons as it already had two bond pair electrons so the hydrogen has complete octet with two electrons as per its capacity. The remaining six electrons now get place on chlorine atom as non- bonding electrons.
Therefore chlorine atom now have total eight electrons surrounding it i.e. two bonding electrons and six non- bonding electrons. Hence the chlorine atom also have complete octet. Thus both H and Cl atoms of HCl lewis structure has complete octets.
HCl lewis structure lone pairs
HCl lewis structure comprises of eight valence electrons in its molecule. From them two electrons are bond pair electrons and on chlorine atom non- bonding electrons are six. If we pair these non- bonding electrons they are being three lone pair electrons. Thus, the HCl lewis structure contains three lone electrons pairs present on chlorine atom of HCl molecule.
HCl lewis structure formal charge
If any lewis structure has some formal charge then that lewis structure is considered to be a stable structure. Formal charge evaluation is done with the following formula.
Formal charge = (valence electrons – non-bonding electrons – ½ bonding electrons)
While evaluating formal charge of HCl lewis structure, there should be first evaluate the formal charge of chlorine and hydrogen atoms separately.
Hydrogen atom: Hydrogen atom contains valence electrons in HCl = 01
Hydrogen atom contains non-bonding electrons in HCl = 00
Hydrogen atom contains bonding electron in HCl = 02 (one bond has 2 electrons)
Hydrogen atom of HCl lewis structure has formal charge = (01–00–2/2) = 0
Therefore, in HCl lewis structure the hydrogen atom contains zero formal charge.
Chlorine atom: Chlorine atom contains Valence electrons in HCl = 07
Chlorine atom contains Non- bonding electrons in HCl = 06
Chlorine atom contains Bonding electrons in HCl = 02 (one bond has two electrons)
Chlorine atom of HCl lewis structure contains formal charge = (7–6–2/2) = 0
Therefore, in HCl lewis structure chlorine aton contains zero formal charge.
Hence, the Hydrogen and Chlorine atoms in HCl lewis structure conatins zero formal charge.
HCl lewis structure resonance
Resonance structure of HCl lewis structure of molecule is not possible, as there is no multiple bonds in its structure. HCl lewis structure has only one single covalent bond and there is no formation of double or triple bond in the structure.
Also HCl lewis structure has zero formal charge, no negative or positive formal charge is present on it. So there is no movement of electrons is possible in HCl lewis structure to form multiple bonds. Thus no resonance structure of HCl molecule is possible.
HCl lewis structure shape
HCl lewis structure is composed of two elements i.e. H and Cl attached with single covalent bond and having three lone electron pairs on Cl atom. To accord with VSEPR theory HCl lewis structure belongs to AXE3 generic formula.
Here, A represents central atom, x represents bonding atoms with central atom and E represents lone pair electrons on bonding neighbouring atoms. Thus the HCl lewis structure contains molecular shape linear and electron geometry tetrahedral.
As the HCl lewis structure belongs to VSEPR theory’s AXE3 generic formula, by which it has molecular shape linear and electron geometry tetrahedral. Therefore, HCl lewis structure contains sp3 hybridization.
HCl lewis structure angle
As the HCl lewis structure has linear shape (molecular shape) and tetrahedral geometry (electron geometry) as it has AXE3 generic formula of VSEPR theory. Hence HCl lewis structure is sp3 hybridised and has bond angle of 109.5 degree.
HCl (hydrochloric acid) is soluble in:
Is HCl soluble in water?
Yes, HCl is soluble in water. When HCl get mixed with water it get dissociates as H+ and Cl- ions and hence forming hydronium ions.
Why HCl soluble in water?
When HCl (hydrochloric acid) dissolved into water it forms an exothermic reaction and evolves some heat. HCl gets dissociates into water as H+ (hydrogen ion or proton) and Cl- ions and hence there is increase of concentration of H+ ions in water and thus forma hydronium ion (H3O+).
How HCl soluble in water?
If we mixed HCl in water (not water in HCl as it can burst the beaker), the H atom present in HCl acid forms an hydrogen bond with oxygen atom of H2O (water) molecule. Hence, HCl on miscible with water it get ionizes as H+ and C- ions to form H3O+ (hydronium) ion.
HCl → H+ + Cl-
HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-
Is HCl an electrolyte?
Yes, HCl (hydrochloric acid) is an electrolyte, instead it is an strong electrolyte as it is a strong acid and when mixed with water it can ionizes as H+ and Cl- ions in water aqueous solution.
Why HCl is electrolyte?
Hydrochloric acid is an strong electrolyte. Electrolyte is an compound on mixing with water produce ions and conducts electricity. HCl can behaves as electrolyte as when it get mixed in water it get dissociates into positively charge H+ ion (cation) and negatively charged Cl- ion (anion) and hence conducts electricity in the solution.
How HCl is electrolyte?
When HCl (hydrochloric acid) on mixing with h2O (water) it get ionizes as cation H+ ion and anion Cl- ion. When the outer electric current is applied on electrolytic solution of HCl and H2O, the hydrogen ions and chlorine ions produced into the solution. So, the H+ ions (cations) going towards cathode (positively charges) and the Cl- ions (anions) going towards anode (negatively charged).
Is HCl a strong electrolyte?
Yes, HCl is an strong electrolyte. The compounds on dissolving in water produc ions and conduct electricity are electrolytes. Strong electrolytes are the substance which can produce more ions into solution when dissolved into water to conduct electricity. The HCl (hydrochloric acid) when dissolved in water produce more H+ and Cl- ions and also forms H3O+ ions and on applying electricity it can conduct electricity.
Is HCl acidic or basic?
Yes, HCl is an acidic compound. HCl behaves as an acid, when it get mixed with H2O, HCl get dissociates as H+ and Cl- ions. The compounds which can release or donates H+ ions on mixing with water are known to be acids.
Why HCl is acidic?
When HCl added in water it get dissociates into water as H+ and Cl- ions. So, there is increase of H+ (hydrogen) ions in the water HCl solution and hence it can act as an acidic compound. It can dissociated mostly in water thus act as a strong acid.
How HCl is acidic?
HCl on adding in water get ionized as H+ and Cl- ions and further the H+ ions joins with H2O molecule to form H3O+ (hydronium) ion and therefore HCl can act as acid
HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-
Is HCl a strong acid?
Yes, HCl is a strong acid. When HCl (hydrochloric acid) get mixed in water, which is then ionises or dissociates in H+ and Cl- ions. It forms more number of H+ ions in water solution and forming hydrogen bonds. It forms exothermic reaction producing heat. Hence, HCl is a strong acid.
Is HCl polyprotic acid?
No, HCl is not an polytprotic acid instead it is an mono- protic acid. Monoprotic acids are those which contain only one hydrogen (proton or H+) atom in the molecule. Polyprotic acids are those acids which has more than one hydrogen (proton or H+) atoms in the molecule.
In HCl (hydrochloric acid) has only one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom present in it. Hence, HCl acid when reacting with water will release or ionize its one proton i.e. hydrogen atom. Hence, HCl is monoprotic and not polyprotic.
Is HCl a lewis acid?
Yes, HCl is an lewis acid. The acids which have ability to accept lone pair electrons are lewis acids. Lewis acids are the substances which have at least an empty valence shell orbital in its atoms. HCl can act as lewis acid as it is capable of gaining protons from water when mixed in water.
Why HCl is a lewis acid?
HCl can act as lewis acid as it is capable to gain or accept lone pair of electrons.
Is HCl an arrhenius acid?
Yes, HCl is an Arrhenius acid. The acids which can increase the H+ ion concentration are considered as Arrhenius acids.
Why HCl an Arrhenius acid?
HCl when added to water, the bond of HCl molecule gets break and forms H+ and Cl- ions in that aqueous solution. Hence, HCl acid can increase the H+ ions concentration in water by liberating H+ ions in it.
HCl → H+ + Cl-
How HCl an Arrhenius acid?
Hydrochloric acid on mixing with water breaks down as H+ and Cl- ions and hence the H+ ion concentration increases in water. Thus, these H+ ions get added to H2O to form H3O+ and Cl- ions.
HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-
Is HCl polar or nonpolar?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is polar in nature. HCl is polar molecule as there is more electronegativity difference within hydrogen and chlorine atoms.
Why HCl is polar?
The electronegativity value of hydrogen and chlorine atoms is 2.20 and 3.16 respectively. Hence, the H and Cl atom has electronegativity difference of 0.96. This value is much greater than prescribed value by Paulings of 0.4.
As the HCl acid has more electronegativity difference value of 0.4 so it is polar in nature. Even the Chlorine atom is more electronegative than hydrogen atom, therefore the electron cloud pulls towards chlorine atom.
Therefore, HCl acid consists of electron distribution which is not equal on both Hydrogen and Chlorine atoms and thus it has whole dipole moment on HCl molecule causing partial positive charge on Hydrogen atom and partial negative charge on Chlorine atoms in HCl molecule.
How HCl is polar?
HCl acid has uneven electrons distribution thus it has asymmetrical arrangement of atoms in its structure. So, the HCl molecule represents molecular shape which is linear and electron geometry which is tetrahedral due to irregular distribution of electrons in it and therefore, HCl acid is polar.
Is HCl linear?
Of course, HCl is linear in shape. Accordance to VSEPR theory’s AXE3 generic formula, the HCl acid contains linear molecular shape. The HCl lewis structure is an diatomic molecule consists of H and Cl atoms which are attached with a single covalent bond in straight single line.
So, the one electron of hydrogen atom shared with chlorine atom and creates single covalent bond in HCl structure and thus it has linear structure.
Is HCl paramagnetic or diamagnetic?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a diamagnetic molecule as it has all paired electrons in its structure.
Why HCl is diamagnetic?
HCl has eight total valence electrons from which one is bond pair electron within H and Cl atoms by sharing one electron of H and one electron of Cl atom. Hence, HCl acid has one bond pairs and three lone electron pairs. As the HCl acid has all paired electrons so it is diamagnetic in nature.
How HCl is diamagnetic?
Diamagnetic molecules have negative value of magnetic susceptibility. The HCl acid has negative value of magnetic susceptibility so it is diamagnetic in nature. Also when magnetic field is applied externally on HCl acid it can repel in opposite direction of magnetic field and hence it is diamagnetic in nature.
HCl boiling point
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has 110 degree Celsius boiling point. The temperatures at which the liquid substances get converted into gases are known as boiling point of that substance. HCl acid has the higher boiling point of 110 degree Celsius as it is polarised in nature and have large size.
Why HCl has higher boiling point?
Hydrochloric acid on reaction with water forms hydrogen bonds with H2O molecules. So, there are strong intermolecular forces forming with hydrogen and chlorine atoms of HCl acid.
These intermolecular forces are hydrogen bonds within HCl and H2O molecules and which is not easy to break down this bonds. HCl is polar molecule and thus it has dispersion forces with greater degree which can operates HCl acid and hence having higher boiling point.
Is HCl diprotic?
No, HCl is not an diprotic acid as it is a mono- protic acid. Diprotic acids are those which contains two hydrogen (H+) atoms, they are also known to be polyprotic acids. Monoprotic acids contains only one hydrogen aton in its structure. In HCl acid, it has only one hydrogen atom present in its structure. So, they are not considered to be diprotic as it is a mon- protic acid.
Is HCl ionic or covalent?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is covalent in nature also it can behaves as polar covalent in naure.
Why HCl is polar covalent molecule?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) contains hydrogen and chlorine atoms having 2.2 and 3.16 electronegativity values. So, the electronegativity difference between H and Cl atoms is 0.9. This value is comes under the prescribed value of electronegativity difference for bonding within atoms from 2.0 to 0.5.
Hence, as per this consideration the HCl acid is a polar covalent, as it has 0.9 electronegativity difference value which comes under polar covalent prescribed value of 2.0 to 0.5. Thus, HCl is a polar covalent acid and not ionic in nature.
How HCl is covalent or polar covalent molecule?
The HCl acid contains H and Cl atoms in its molecule. The H atoms have one valence electron and Cl atom has 7 valence electrons in their outermost valence shell orbitals. Here, in HCl both H and Cl atoms are sharing one – one electron to each other to make a single covalent bond which is not a pure covalent bond.
This covalent bond is an strong bond but showing polar nature. HCl is being an polar covalent acid as it has uneven electron sharing within H and Cl atoms. Further the Cl is more electronegative than hydrogen atom and thus the electron density creates on chlorine atom of HCl acid. Therefore, HCl is polar covalent acid.
Is HCl amphiprotic?
No, HCl is not amphiprotic acid. The compound which can act both as acid or bases are known to be amphoteric or amphiprotic compounds.
Why HCl is amphiprotic?
HCl is an strong acid and do not behave both as acid and a base. If the HCl acid get reacts with a base it will donate proton and produce a conjugate acid. HCl acid cannot gain or accept proton on reaction with base. Thus HCl do not show any basic nature and it is not amphiprotic acid.
How HCl is amphiprotic?
According to acid – base theory of Bronstead – Lowry, the compounds which can release protons to base and form conjugate acids are known as acids. Similarly the compounds which can gain protons to produce conjugate base are known as base.
If HCl added to base like H2O (water) or NH3 (ammonia), it can donate proton to basic substance (NH3 or H2O) and produce conjugate acids such as hydronium ion or ammonium ion. But HCl do not accept protons from other basic substances. Thus, HCl is not amphiprotic.
Is HCl binary or ternary?
HCl is an binary acid. The compounds or molecules which have to non – metallic atoms present in its structure are known as binary compounds. In HCl, the non-metal H forms a bond with another non-metal Cl to form HCl molecule.
Why HCl is binary?
HCl acid contains two atoms mainly which are non-metals. So, the HCl molecule has one H and one Cl atoms and both are non-metals. Thus, the HCl acid is an binary molecule.
How HCl is binary?
Binary acids are the acids in which the hydrogen which are non-metal is linked with another non-metal atom. Thus in HCl, the H atom is linked with Cl which is also non-metal atom. Here, Bi meaning two, thus two non-metals are available on HCl and therefore, it is binary acid.
Is HCl balanced?
No, basically HCl is not balanced equation. To balance the HCl reaction equation we have to adjust same number of elements on both sides of reaction. HCl acid is produced by reaction between hydrogen gas (H2) and chlorine (Cl2). Here, H2 is an reducing agent and Cl2 is an oxidising agent.
H2 (g) + Cl2 (aq) → HCl
The reaction seen above is not balanced equation as the atoms on reactant side (H2 + Cl2) are not equal to the atoms on product side (HCl). Hence we have to add 2 above HCl of product side to make equal number of atoms on both sides.
H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
Therefore, now the above HCl formation reaction is balanced equation.
Is HCl conductive?
Yes, HCl is conductive acid. HCl on mixing with water produced ions and hence conducts electricity. Thus HCl is conductive molecule.
Why HCl is conductive?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) when mixed with water, it donates H+ ions in H2O solution and creates hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Hence, HCl acid is able to produce ion on mixing with water and thus can conduct electricity.
How HCl is conductive?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) composed of two non-metal atoms i.e hydrogen atom and chlorine atom. So, the hydrochloric acid acts as an acid by losing H+ ions in water solution. Also it creates h+ and Cl- ions in wate(aqueous solution).
As the hydrogen(H+) ions joined to H2O molecule to produce hydronium (H3O+) ions. These ions are flowing or moving towards cathods and anode to conduct electricity in the aqueous solution. Therefore, HCl can acts as strong acid or strong electrolyte which can conduct electricity.
HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-
Is HCl conjugate base?
HCl is an produce conjugate base on reaction with lewis base. Generally HCl whne reacts with base to form acid-base reaction to produce a conjugate base.
Why HCl is conjugate base?
Hydrochloric acid can easily donates its protons (H+ ions) when reacts with base. As the basic substance can accept H+ ions and thus, it can form higher products with positive charge. Hence HCl can produce conjugate base.
How HCl is conjugate base?
HCl on reaction with ammonia (NH3) which is an lewis base, the HCl acid can lose H+ ions to ammonia molecule. Hence, it can form ammonium ion (NH4+) and Cl- ions as a product in this acid-base reaction. In this reaction, Cl- ions are formed which is a conjugate base.
HCl + NH3 → NH4+ + Cl- (Cl- = conjugate base)
Is HCl corrosive?
Yes, HCl is corrosive acid. Hydrochloric acid on mixing with water forms H3O+ ions and thus on contact with water it is being corrosive.
Why HCl is corrosive?
HCl acid on reaction with H2O get dissociates as H+ and Cl- ions. HCl is an strong acid which are able to form more H+ ions in H2O solution. So, because of the increasing H+ ions in the aqueous solution the HCl acid has lesser pH value (less than 4 or 7 pH). Therefore, the pH value of HCl acid is 3.5 and thus it is corrosive an acid.
How HCl is corrosive?
When strong acids like hydrochloric acid (HCl) on mixing with H2O and it ionize as H+ and Cl- ions and thus there is increase in H+ ion concentration in aqueous solution. Hence, HCl acid will form H3O+ ions in aqueous solution.
These H3O+ ions get reduced on contact with metal surface and thus create corrosion.The corrosive nature of acids can measure the acids capacity to donate H+ ions by acid dissociation constant (pKa). The HCl acid has -5.9 pKa value and thus HCl is corrosive.
Is HCl concentrated?
Yes, hydrochloric acid is a concentrated acid. The acids which are in pure form or the acids have more concentration in water or the acids which can increase the H+ ion concentration in water are known as concentrated acids.
HCl acid on mixing with water ionizes as H+ and Cl- ions and also form H3O+ ion. Hence, HCl acid can increase concentration of H+ ions in water that is why it is an concentrated acid.
Is HCl solid liquid or gas?
HCl is present both in gaseous and liquid form. HCl in pure form is a gas known as hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride only forms H+ and Cl- ions on ionization. When hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas bubbled in H2O, it forms aqueous HCl solution known as hydrochloric acid.
The hydrochloric acid on further reaction with water forms H3O+ ions. Thus, HCl (hydrochloric acid) is an liquid. So, HCl (hydrogen chloride) is gas and HCl (hydrochloric acid) is a liquid.
Is HCl hygroscopic?
Yes, HCl acid is hygroscopic acid. The molecules or acids which can absorbs moisture from atmosphere or air are known as hygroscopic compounds. The hygroscopic nature of any compound can change its physical properties like boiling point, melting point, etc. Thus, HCl acid also absorbs moisture from atmosphere and hence it is hygroscopic in nature.
Is HCl hydrogen bonding?
HCl (hydrochloric acid) forms hydrogen bond on added to water (H2O). If HCl mixed with H2O it ionizes as h+ and Cl- to produce H3O+ ions in aqueous solution. Here,H atom of HCl forms hydrogen bond with more electronegative O atom of H2O molecule.
HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl-
Is HCl metal or non-metal?
HCl is an non – metallic acid. In HCl aicd there are two non – metallic atoms are present i.e. hydrogen and chlorine atoms. Thus HCl is non – metallic acid due to presence of two non – metals. Also pure form of HCl gas on adding to water forms aqueous solution hydrochloric acid. Hence, Hcl is non – metallic acid.
Is HCl neutral?
No HCl is not neutral substance. HCl is an acid thus it is an acidic substance. HCl can form H+ ions on mixing with water. It also has polar covalent bonds due to which the electron cloud creates on more electronegative chlorine atom. Hence there is rise of some partial posistive charge on H atom and partial negative charge on Cl atom. Thus, HCl is and acidic compound and not neutral.
Is HCl a nucleophile?
No, hCl is not an nucleophile. Nucleophilic substances are those which are electron rich and able to donate electron pairs. They are basically lewis base and neutral compounds or negatively charged species. Rather, HCl is an electrophile which can gain electrons.
Why HCl is not a nucleophile?
HCl is an electrophile due to its capacity to gain electrons and lose protons. Thus, they are electron loving compounds which can gain or accepts electrons from other species. Generally electrophiles are lewis acids, positively charged compounds or neutralmolecules.
How HCl is not a nucleophile?
HCl is basically electrophile in nature which can give its hydrogen atoms to make new bond with other molecules by gaining electrons from them. Ex: If ethane reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) it gives the production of chloro ethane.
CH2=CH2 + HCl → CH3-CH2Cl
In the above reaction, HCl (hydrochloric acid) acts as an electrophile as it is accepting electron pairs from ethane molecule and losing its hydrogen atom. Here, there is the formation of new C-H bond as the H atom of HCl get added on it and Cl ion also joined with second C atom of ethane.
Is HCl organic or inorganic?
Hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an inorganic acid. The compounds which has carbon atom in its molecule are the organic compounds. The hydrocarbon chain generally present in organic compounds. HCl acid does not contain any carbon atom in it and hence it is an inorganic acid.
Is HCl oxidizing agent?
HCl acid is not oxidizing agent instead it is an reducing agent or basically a strong reducing agent. Hydrogen chloride has high dissociation energy because of which HCl can ionize or dissociate easily on mixing with water. HCl can ionize as H+ and Cl- ions in H2O, thus it is a reducing agent.
Is HCl polyatomic?
Yes, HCl is an polyatomic substance. It is composed of two non – metallic elements like H and Cl atoms. Due to the presence of two atoms in HCl it is a diatomic acid i.e polyatomic. Hence, HCl acid is an polyatomic acid.
Is HCl unstable?
HCl is an unstable acid. Stability of any molecule is determined by atoms electronegativity, formal charge present on it and the size of its atoms. The molecule is more stable in nature if it has the small size of the atoms or halogen atoms which should be more electronegative. Therefore, HCl is an unstable acid as it has small size and more electronegative halogen atom as compared to hydrogen atom.
Why HCl is unstable?
Molecules stability depends on gaining or losing of electrons by it. The species is more stable if it loose or gains electrons as it has complete octet. As more the stable is compound less reacts it is.
HCl is dissociates on dissolving in H2O but it does not dissociates readily in H2O. Some of HCl molecules are still exists in H2O. So, the HCl acid is an unstable acid. It can be stable at some recognized storage situation.
Is HCl volatile?
HCl is an volatile acid. Any compounds volatile nature can be measured with the presence of intermolecular force in it. The compound gains its molecular weight though its Wander walls forces also increases. It can easily evaporate into the atmosphere.
Why HCl is Volatile?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) liquid is a volatile acid as it has weak intermolecular force of attraction i.e. hydrogen bonds. It also get ionizes readily and get eveporised easily in atmosphere at room temperature. Hence HCl is an volatile acid.
Is HCl viscous?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) liquid form is volatile in nature as it has capacity to form hydrogen bond. The measure of fluids or liquids resistant to flow or move is known as viscosity.
HCl molecules do not form hydrogen bonds with other HCl molecules but they can form hydrogen bonds when mixed with water. As the HCl is liquid or fluid substance it can form hydrogen bonds with water as it forms intermolecular forces and hence the hydrochloric acid is viscous acid.
HCl is present in both gaseous and liquid form. It is has total 8 valence electrons in its lewis structure. HCl lewis structure has one bond pair and three lone pair electrons. It has no formal charge and no resonance structure. Cl atom has complete octet in HCl lewis structure. HCl lewis structure has linear molecular shape, tetrahedral electron geometry, sp3 hybridization and 109.5 degree bond angle.