17 Facts on HCl + AgNO3: What, How to Balance & FAQs

AgNO3 is a product of the reaction between nitric acid and Ag (elemental), hence will easily react with HCl. Let us examine some facts about when AgNO3 reacts with HCl.

Hydrochloric acid being a strong acid, has the capability to dissociate completely. Hence it reacts with many compounds easily. Silver nitrate is a salt of silver that is used as a precursor for making of various other silver compounds (as it is quite economical).

Hydrochloric acid is colorless and possesses a characteristic pungent-like odor. It has a pH of 2. Silver nitrate is seen to be non-hygroscopic compound; hence it can be used easily also it is very much stable to light. In the following sections, we will study many facts based on HCl + AgNO3 reaction.

What is the product of HCl and AgNO3?

When HCl is reacted with AgNO3, the products obtained are silver chloride and nitric acid. The formed product silver chloride is observed to be insoluble in water.

HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq)

What type of reaction is HCl + AgNO3?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is a simple form of an acid-base reaction. It can also be called as a neutralization reaction as HCl acts as an acid and AgNO3 acts as a base.

How to balance HCl + AgNO3?

We can balance the HCl + AgNO3 reaction easily by following the below steps:

HCl + AgNO3 → AgCl + HNO3

  • The first step involves counting the number of each type of atom on the reactant side and the product side.
  • The next involves equalizing the number of atoms on both sides (any method can be used).
  • In the above reaction on the reactants side, we can see there is one atom of Hydrogen, Chlorine, Silver, and Nitrogen each. The oxygen element has 3 atoms.
  • On the product side as well Hydrogen, Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Silver have one atom each, and oxygen has 3 atoms.
  • Meaning the equation is already in the balanced form.

HCl + AgNO3 titration

In order to determine the quantity of Ag, we can carry out a titration between Ag and HCl. Since the product of the reaction is a precipitate, it should be carried out very carefully.

Apparatus Required

Burette (50 mL), Burette stand, white tile, Erlenmeyer flask, and volumetric flask.


The phenolphthalein indicator can be efficiently used to carry out the titration between HCl and AgNO3 as it belongs to a class of acid-base reactions. The indicator gives a pink color when the medium is alkaline and becomes pink to colorless in an acidic medium.

Point to be noted

The titrant in the titration is HCl, as it is added to the Burette. The AgNO3 solution is added to the Erlenmeyer flask.


  • The apparatus must be cleaned properly and rinsed with appropriate chemicals by utilizing a very less amount of chemicals.
  • The Burette is filled with the standardized HCl, and the AgNO3 solution is taken in the Erlenmeyer flask.
  • The phenolphthalein indicator is added to the reaction mixture and mixed properly (buffer solution should be added if required).
  • Titration should be carried out very carefully by releasing HCl drop by drop from the Burette until a color change is observed.
  • When there is a characteristic color change visible, we can say the endpoint of the reaction is reached.
  • The above procedure should be repeated thrice to get accurate results.
  • By making use of the formula N1V1=N2V2, we can find out the desired quantity.

HCl + AgNO3 net ionic equation

The net ionic equation for the reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is discussed below:

Net ionic equation

HCl + AgNO3 conjugate pairs

The silver nitrate salt and the respective conjugate base are the conjugate pair of the reaction between HCl and AgNO3. Refer to the following reaction.

HCl + AgNO3 → Cl + HAgNO3+

HCl and AgNO3 intermolecular forces

The intermolecular force observed in the HCl molecule is an ionic type of interaction where chlorine (negatively charged) readily accepts electrons from Hydrogen. The intermolecular interaction observed in AgNO3 is also an ionic interaction between the cation of Ag and the anion of nitrate.

HCl + AgNO3 reaction enthalpy

The enthalpy of the reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is 22.61 kJ/mol.

Is HCl + AgNO3 a buffer solution?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 does not give a buffer solution because the products formed is a precipitate (AgCl) and an acid of pH 3 (HNO3).

Is HCl + AgNO3 a complete reaction?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is a complete reaction as Silver chloride and nitric acid are formed almost in the same proportion.

Is HCl + AgNO3 an exothermic or endothermic reaction?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is an endothermic reaction as it is a neutralization type of reaction and the enthalpy value is positive.

Is HCl + AgNO3 a redox reaction?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is not a redox reaction. The reason is discussed below.

  • In a redox reaction, there is reduction as well as oxidation taking place, and there is a change in the oxidation states of the species.
  • In the above equation, we can see there is no change in the oxidation numbers of the species. (In the reactant and product side, the oxidation state remains the same). This confirms it is not a redox reaction.

Is HCl + AgNO3 a precipitation reaction?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is a precipitation reaction as the product formed AgCl is a precipitate that is insoluble in water and settles at the bottom of the container.

Is HCl + AgNO3 reversible or irreversible reaction?

The reaction between HCl + AgNO3 is an irreversible reaction as it is a precipitation reaction giving rise to an insoluble precipitate.

Is HCl + AgNO3 displacement reaction?

The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is a double displacement reaction as two species are interchanged to give products.

How to balance NaOH + AgNO3 + HCl = AgCl + NaNO3 + H2O

By following the below steps, we can easily balance the equation:

  • First, count the number of each type of atom on both sides. And equalize the number of atoms on both the sides.
  • NaOH + AgNO3 + HCl = AgCl + NaNO3 + H2O
  • Here on the reactant side, we have one atom each of Sodium, Silver, Chlorine, and Nitrogen. Two atoms of Hydrogen and four atoms of oxygen element.
  • On the product side also, there are same number of atoms, one each of Nitrogen, chlorine, Silver, and Sodium. Two atoms of Hydrogen and three of oxygen. Hence the equation is in the balanced form.

How to balance AgNO3 + HCl + NH3 = (Ag(NH3)2)Cl + HNO3?

  • AgNO3 + HCl + NH3 = (Ag(NH3)2)Cl + HNO3
  • We can balance the equation by finding out the each type and number of atoms on both the sides. In the next step, they should be equalized in the way discussed below.
  • AgNO3 + HCl + 2NH3 = (Ag(NH3)2)Cl + HNO3
  • What we have done is multiplied the NH3 molecule by 2. In this way, the equation is balanced.

How to balance FeCl2 + HCl + AgNO3 = Fe(NO3)3 + AgCl + NO + H2O?

  • FeCl2 + HCl + AgNO3 = Fe(NO3)3 + AgCl + NO + H2O
  • The above equation can be balanced by equalizing the reactant side species and the product side species, the trial and error method can be used.
  • Meaning the number of atoms on both the sides should be same.
  • In order to equalize we have multiplied FeCl2 with 3, HCl with 4 and AgNO3 with 10 on the reactant side.
  • On the product side we have multiplied Fe(NO3)3 with 3 and H2O with 3.
  • 3FeCl2 + 4HCl + 10AgNO3 = 3Fe(NO3)3 + 10AgCl + NO + 2H2O


The reaction between HCl and AgNO3 is an acid-base, neutralization, and double displacement type of reaction. Since the enthalpy value is positive, it is an endothermic reaction and is irreversible as it is a precipitation reaction.

Sania Jakati

This is Sania Jakati from Goa. I am an aspiring chemist pursuing my post graduation in organic chemistry. I believe education is the key element that moulds you into a great human being both mentally and physically. I'm glad to be a member of scintillating branch of chemistry and will try my best to contribute whatever I can from my side and Lambdageeks is the best platform where I can share as well as gain knowledge at the same time. LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/sania-jakati-0954101bb

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