Hydrochloric Acid is one of the strongest acids in chemistry and Silver is a transition metal. Let us discuss the reaction between HCl and Ag in this article.
HCl is a colorless acid and undergoes complete dissociation in the water while Ag is found in the earth’s crust. The reaction between Hydrochloric acid and silver is not possible as silver is less reactive than hydrogen in the metal activity series. This reaction is only possible if hydrochloric acid is concentrated.
The following article will discuss some more basic facts about HCl + Ag reactions like what is the product of the HCl + Ag, what type of reaction is HCl + Ag, and HCl + Ag titration.
What is the product of HCl and Ag?
The product of HCl + Ag is AgCl and H2. AgCl is present in the form of a white precipitate and Hydrogen gas is evolved.
What type of reaction is HCl + Ag?
The reaction of HCl + Ag is a type of single displacement reaction. The hydrogen ion in hydrochloric acid is displaced by the silver metal ion and the formation of silver chloride salt takes place with the evolution of hydrogen gas.
HCl(aq) + Ag(s) = AgCl(s) +H2(g)
How to balance HCl + Ag?
The HCl + Ag reaction can be balanced by the hit and trial method, according to the steps given below – HCl(aq) + Ag(s) = AgCl(s) +H2(g)
- As two atoms of hydrogen gas evolved in the product, in order to balance the reaction two moles of hydrochloric acid must be present on the reactants side of the reaction.
2HCl(aq) + Ag(s) = AgCl(s) +H2(g)
- In the above reaction, the number of moles of chloride ions present on the reactants side is more than on the product side, so in order to balance the reaction two moles of AgCl must be present on the product side.
2HCl(aq) + Ag(s) = 2AgCl(s) +H2(g)
- In the above reaction, the number of moles of silver ion on the product side is more than on the reactant side, so two moles of silver metal must be present on the reactants side to balance the reaction.
2HCl(aq) + 2Ag(s) = 2AgCl(s) +H2(g)
The reaction is now balanced.
HCl + Ag Net Ionic Equation
- The balanced molecular equation is written as 2HCl(aq) + 2Ag(s) = 2AgCl(s) +H2(g).
- HCl is a strong electrolyte and it dissociates into H+ and Cl– in water. The Silver metal ion(Ag+) combines with Cl– ion and displaces H+ in Hydrochloric acid.
HCl = H+ + Cl–
Ag+ + Cl– = AgCl
- The silver ion consists of a positive charge and combines with the chloride ion, containing a negative charge, and the formation of silver chloride takes place.
HCl + Ag Conjugate Pairs
HCl is a strong acid so its conjugate base is Cl– which is obtained on the donation of H+.
HCl and Ag Intermolecular Forces
HCl is a polar compound in which H+ and Cl– are connected through ionic bonding. The product contains a salt AgCl, in which Ag+ and Cl– ions are connected with ionic forces and hydrogen gas contains covalent forces.
HCl + Ag Reaction Enthalpy
The enthalpy change for HCl + Ag is 145.67 KJ/mol. The enthalpy for the silver ion is -105.579 KJ/mol, the chloride ion is -167.159 KJ/mol, and silver chloride is -127.068 KJ/mol. The enthalpy change for HCl + Ag is equal to -127.068-(-167.159-105.579) = 145.67 KJ/mol.
Is HCl + Ag a Buffer Solution?
HCl + Ag is not a buffer solution as hydrochloric acid is a strong acid and it completely dissociates into its ions so it is incapable of forming a buffer solution.
Is HCl + Ag a Complete Reaction?
HCl + Ag is a complete reaction as the products formed are stable. The salt, AgCl, and dihydrogen(H2) are stable in the free state.
Is HCl + Ag an Exothermic or Endothermic Reaction?
HCl +Ag is an endothermic reaction as the enthalpy of the reaction is positive. In HCl +Ag reaction, a large amount of energy is given to the reactants so the reaction takes place easily.
Is HCl + Ag a Redox Reaction?
HCl + Ag is not a redox reaction as the oxidation state of the silver remains +1 in the reactants and the products. The oxidation state of hydrogen reduces from +1 to 0 and the oxidation state of chloride ions remains -1 on the reaction sides.
Is HCl + Ag a Precipitation Reaction?
HCl + Ag is a precipitation reaction as the product of this reaction is a white precipitate of AgCl. When HCl is poured into a solution containing silver ions, positively charged silver ions combine with negatively charged chloride ions and the formation of a dirty white precipitate of silver chloride takes place.
Is HCl + Ag a Reversible or Irreversible Reaction?
HCl + Ag is an irreversible reaction. This reaction is an example of a precipitation reaction and precipitation reactions are irreversible reactions as the precipitate formed in the product cannot be converted back to the solution.
Is HCl + Ag a Displacement Reaction?
HCl+ Ag is a displacement reaction. Displacement reactions of metals and acids are only possible under certain conditions. If the acid is very concentrated, metal will displace hydrogen from the acid. Acidic hydrogens can be removed only by those metals which have higher reactivity than hydrogen.
HCl has a very pungent smell and is present in the human digestive system. Silver(Ag) is a white, soft, and lustrous metal that is found in the earth’s crust. Silver does not react with dilute acids, hence dilute acids are used for cleaning ornaments. Generally, metals react with acids to form salt and hydrogen gas.