Sodium carbonate is a carbonate salt and readily reacts with H_{2}SO_{4. }Let us know more about the reaction between H_{2}SO_{4} and Na_{2}CO_{3.}

**Na _{2}CO_{3} is a basic metal carbonate that is white in color. It easily undergoes a reaction with H_{2}SO_{4, }a colorless, strong acid. Sodium carbonate is a Lowry-Bronsted base, capable of accepting H^{+} from H_{2}SO_{4.}**

In this article, we will discuss some facts about the reaction H_{2}SO_{4 }+ Na_{2}CO_{3, }like the type of reaction, conjugate pairs, balancing method etc.

## What is the product of H_{2}SO_{4} and Na_{2}CO_{3}?

**Sodium sulphate, water and bubbles of carbon dioxide are obtained when H _{2}SO_{4} is added to **

**Na**

_{2}CO_{3}**.**

** Na _{2}CO_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4} ———> Na_{2}SO_{4} + CO_{2} + H_{2}O**

## What type of reaction is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3}?

**Na _{2}CO_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4} is a neutralization reaction, along with double decomposition reaction.**

## How to balance H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3}?

**The equation is balanced using the following steps.**

**Na _{2}CO_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4} = Na_{2}SO_{4} + CO_{2} + H_{2}O**

**Count the number of each element involved in the reaction, in both the reactant and product side.**

Elements | Reactant side | Product side |
---|---|---|

Na | 2 | 2 |

C | 1 | 1 |

S | 1 | 1 |

O | 7 | 7 |

H | 2 | 2 |

**Number of elements on each side of the reaction**

**We find that the numbers of each element in the reactant and product side is equal. Hence the reaction is self-balanced.**

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }titration

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3}**

**is a strong acid-weak base titration.**To estimate the normality of H_{2}SO_{4, }we can titrate Na_{2}CO_{3}and H_{2}SO_{4}**using the following procedure.**

__Apparatus__

__Apparatus__

**Burette, burette stand, conical flask, glass funnel, 10 ml pipette, and beaker.**

__Indicator__

__Indicator__

**Methyl orange is used as the indicator**.

__Procedure__

__Procedure__

**Pipette out 10 ml of the standardized Na**_{2}CO_{3 }solution and add a few drops of indicator.**Fill the burette with H**_{2}SO_{4 }solution, whose normality is to be known.**Slowly add H**_{2}SO_{4 }from the burette into the conical flask with constant stirring.**The endpoint is the appearance of orange-red color.****Note the burette reading and repeat the procedure for 3 concurrent readings.****We can find the unknown normality of H**_{2}SO_{4}by using the formula, V_{1}S_{1}=V_{2}S_{2}.

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }net ionic equation

**The net ionic equation of H _{2}SO_{4} + **

**Na**

_{2}CO_{3 }**is**–

**2H ^{+ }(aq) + **

**CO**

_{3}^{2- }(aq) = CO_{2 }(g)_{ }+**H**

_{2}O (l)**To derive the net ionic equation, the following steps are followed:**

**Write the ionic form of each of the substances along with their states. The complete ionic equation of H**_{2}SO_{4}+ Na_{2}CO_{3}is –**2H**^{+}(aq) + SO_{4}^{2- }**(aq)**+ 2Na^{+}**(aq)**+ CO_{3}^{2-}**(aq)**= 2Na^{+}**(aq)**+ SO_{4}^{2- }**(aq)**+ CO_{2}**(g)**+H_{2}O**(l)****Cancel the spectator ions (SO**_{4}^{2-}, Na^{+}), which appear on both sides of the equation, to arrive at the net ionic equation.

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }conjugate pairs

**Conjugate base of the acid H**_{2}SO_{4 }= HSO_{4}^{–}**Conjugate acid of the base Na**_{2}CO_{3 }= HCO_{3}^{–}

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }intermolecular forces

**Ionic, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals dispersion force are the intermolecular forces that exist in H**_{2}SO_{4}.**Electrostatic force of attraction exists in Na**_{2}CO_{3}between the metallic sodium ions and polyatomic carbonate ions.

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }reaction enthalpy

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3} reaction enthalpy is **

**-122.4 KJ/mol, and the negative sign denotes that heat is liberated during this reaction.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }a buffer solution?

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3} is not a buffer solution because the reaction mixture contains H_{2}SO_{4}, which is a strong acid.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }a complete reaction?

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }is a complete reaction, as aqueous sulphuric acid completely neutralizes sodium carbonate to form sodium sulphate.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }an exothermic reaction?

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3} is an exothermic reaction, as the reaction enthalpy is negative.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }a redox reaction?

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3} is not a redox reaction, as no element is neither oxidized nor reduced.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }a precipitation reaction?

**The reaction H _{2}SO_{4} + **

**Na**

_{2}CO_{3}**is not a precipitation reaction as the product, sodium sulphate, formed is completely soluble in water.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3} irreversible reaction?

**H _{2}SO_{4} + **

**Na**

_{2}CO_{3}**is an irreversible reaction because, at equilibrium, the reactants are completely converted into Na**

_{2}SO_{4}, along with the release of CO_{2}gas.## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }a displacement reaction?

**The reaction between H _{2}SO_{4} + Na_{2}CO_{3 }is an example of double displacement reaction**,

**followed by an immediate decomposition reaction of unstable carbonic acid (H**

_{2}CO_{3}) into CO_{2}and water.**Conclusion**

H_{2}SO_{4}** _{ }**+

**Na**

_{ }_{2}CO

_{3 }is a typical carbonate-acid reaction, in which the thermodynamically unstable carbonic acid decomposes into gaseous CO

_{2 }and water. Na

_{2}CO

_{3 }is used as a water softener, while H

_{2}SO

_{4}

_{ }is used widely as an industrial agent.