Li is an alkali metal and when it reacts with a strong acid like H_{2}SO_{4}, it can release hydrogen gas. Let us understand the reaction mechanism behind Li and H_{2}SO_{4}.

**Li has higher standard reduction potential -3.401 EV which is so high that it is placed above hydrogen in the electrochemical series. Lithium can easily donate one electron and can reduce many organic molecules. Sulfuric acid is one of the strongest inorganic acids and it can oxidize many elements in chemistry.**

The reaction between Li and H_{2}SO_{4} requires no catalyst, temperature, or pressure. Let us discuss the mechanism of the reaction between sulfuric acid and lithium, the reaction enthalpy, the type of reaction, product formation, etc in the following part of the article.

## 1. What is the product of H_{2}SO_{4} and Li?

**Lithium sulfate is a major product formed when H _{2}SO_{4} and Li are reacted together and hydrogen gas is liberated. Li is present in a higher position than hydrogen in the electrochemical series so the corresponding sulfate is formed.**

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Li = Li_{2}SO_{4} + H_{2}**

## 2. What type of reaction is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li?

**H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li reaction is an example of a single displacement reaction along with redox and precipitation reactions. Here, elements having higher reduction potential reacts with the acid molecule.**

## 3. How to balance H_{2}SO_{4} + Li?

**H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li = Li _{2}SO**

**4**

**+ H**

_{2}**reaction is not balanced**,

**we have to balance the equation in the following way,**

**First, we label all the reactants and products by A, B, C, and D as there are only four molecules obtained for this reaction and the reaction looks like this**:**A H**_{2}SO_{4}+ B Li = C Li_{2}SO_{4}+ D H_{2}**Equating all the coefficients for all the same type of elements by rearranging them****After the rearrangement of all the coefficients of the same elements by their stoichiometric proportion we get, H = 2A = 2D, S = A = C, O = 4A = 4C, Li = B = 2C****Using the Gaussian elimination and equating all the equations we get, A = 1, B = 2, C = 1, and D = 1, so the oxidation number of Li is +2 on both sides.****Write the whole equation in the balanced form****The overall balanced equation will be,**

**H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + 2Li = Li _{2}SO**

**4**

**+ H**

_{2}## 4. H_{2}SO_{4} + Li titration

**To estimate the quantity of sulfur, we can perform a titration between Li and H**_{2}**SO**_{4}

**Apparatus used**

**We need a burette, conical flask, burette holder, volumetric flask, and beakers for this titration.**

**Titre and titrant**

**H2SO4 acts as a titrant which is taken in the burette and the molecule to be analyzed is Li which is taken in a conical flask.**

**Indicator**

**The whole titration is done in an acidic medium or acidic pH so the best suitable indicator will be phenolphthalein which gives perfect results for this titration at given pH.**

**Procedure**

**The burette was filled with standardized H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** and Li was taken in a conical flask along with the respective indicator. H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** is added dropwise to the conical flask and the flask was shaking constantly. After a certain time when the endpoint arrived, indicator changes its color and the reaction was done.**

We repeat the titration several times for better results and then we estimate lithium as well as sulfate quantity by the formula V_{1}S_{1 }= V_{2}S_{2}.

## 5. H_{2}SO_{4}+ Li net ionic equation

**The net ionic equation between H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li is as follows,**

**2H**^{+}** + SO**_{4}^{2-}** + 2Li ^{+} + 2e**

^{–}**= 2Li**

^{+}+ SO

_{4}

^{2-}**+ H**

_{2}**H**._{2}SO_{4}can be ionized to H^{+}and SO_{4}^{2-}as it is a strong electrolyte**After that, Li release two electrons for Li**.^{+}**After that, Li**_{2}SO_{4}dissociate into Li^{+}and SO_{4}^{2-}and hydrogen gas remain intact.

## 6. H_{2}SO_{4}+ Li conjugate pairs

**H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li conjugate pairs will be the corresponding de-protonated and protonated form of that particular species which are listed below-**

**Conjugate pair of H**_{2}**SO**_{4}**= SO**_{4}^{2-}**Conjugate pair of H**^{–}**= H**_{2}

## 7. H_{2}SO_{4} and Li intermolecular forces

**The intermolecular force present in H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** is due to the strong electrostatic force between a proton and sulfate ions. Also due to polarity, Van der Waal’s attraction is present but in the case of H**_{2}**, covalent force, as well as dipole interaction is present, and for LiSO4 ****only covalent force is present.**

Molecule | Actingforce |

H_{2}SO_{4} | Electrostatic, van der waal’s Dipole interaction |

Li | ionic, metallic bond |

Li_{2}SO4 | Columbia force, ionic interaction |

H_{2} | Covalent, H-bonding |

**Intermolecular Forces**

## 8. H_{2}SO_{4} + Li reaction enthalpy

**H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li ****reaction enthalpy**** is -380 KJ/mol which can be obtained by the formula enthalpy of products – enthalpy of reactants, and here the change in enthalpy is negative.**

Molecule | Enthalpy(KJ/mol) |

Li | 0 |

H_{2}SO_{4} | -814 |

Li_{2}SO_{4} | -1436 |

H_{2} | +242 |

**Enthalpy of Reactants**

**and Products**

## 9. Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li a buffer solution?

**The reaction between H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li gives a buffer solution of Li _{2}SO_{4} and H**

_{2}**and they can control the pH of the reaction.**

## 10. Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li a complete reaction?

**The reaction H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li is a complete reaction because it gives one complete product Li _{2}SO**

_{4}**along with H**

_{2}**gas. The reaction takes some time to complete until all the reactants completely react with the products.**

**11. **Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li an exothermic or endothermic reaction?

**The reaction between H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li is exothermic in terms of thermodynamics first law. So, the reaction takes more energy and temperature from the surrounding which helps to complete the reaction, Where δH is always negative.**

## 12. Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li a redox reaction?

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Li reaction is a **

**redox reaction**

**because in this reaction many elements get reduced and oxidized as hydrogen gets reduced and Li gets oxidized.**

## 13. Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li a precipitation reaction

**The reaction H**_{2}**SO**_{4}** + Li is a precipitation reaction because Li _{2}SO**

_{4}**gets precipitated in the solution and is not soluble in the reaction mixture.**

## 14. Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li reversible or irreversible reaction?

**The reaction between H**_{2}**SO**_{4}**+ Li is irreversible because we get H**_{2}** gas as a product. When gas is formed during the reaction the entropy of the reaction increases and the equilibrium of the reaction shifts towards the right-hand side only.**

## 15. Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Li displacement reaction?

**The reaction between H _{2}SO_{4}+ Li is an example of **

**single displacement**

**reaction because in the above reaction Li**

^{+}displaced H^{+}in H_{2}SO_{4}and H_{2}gas becomes free from the reaction.#### Conclusion

H_{2}SO_{4} and Li reaction mainly give us lithium sulfate along with hydrogen gas so it is a commercially important reaction for the production of hydrogen gas. Also, the quantitative analysis of H_{2}SO_{4} and Li gives the amount of lithium as well as sulfate in the respective sample.

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